APUSH Chapter 28 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt

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Henry Demarest Lloyd
charged into the Standard Oil Company with his book Wealth Against Commonwealth
Thorstein Veblen
assailed the rich with his book The Theory of The Leisure Class; his view was that the leisure class made money just to make money instead of for making goods to satisfy real needs
Jacob A. Riis
shocked the American middle class How the Other Half Lives; a damning indictment of the New York slums; deeply influenced a future New York police commissioner (Teddy Roosevelt)
Theodore Dreiser
battered promoters and profiteers in The Financier
Socialists (many of them European Immigrants)
began to register appreciable strength at the ballot box
believers in the social gospel
promoted a band of progressivism based on Christian teachings; used religious doctrines to demand better housing and living conditions
feminists
added social justice to suffrage on their list of needed reforms
muckrakers
presidents Roosevelt's nickname for young reporters that wrote about debatable or argumentative topics; directed fire at social evils; counted on publicity to right social wrongs; sought to cleanse capitalism and not demolish it
Lincoln Steffens
launched a series of articles in McClure's titled "The Shame of the Cities";the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government
Ida Tarbell
a pioneering journalist; published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company
Thomas Lawson
an erratic speculator who had made $50 million on the stock market shared his accomplice's practices in "Frenzied Finance"
David Phillips
shocked American public with "The Treason of the Senate"; charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people, but instead the trusts and railroad companies
Ray Baker
showed light upon the unfair treatment of blacks, who had 1/3 of their population illiterate, in Following the Color Line
John Spargo
wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children which brought to light the abuses of Child Labor
progressives
wanted to use the state to curb monopoly power and to improve the common people's conditions of life and labor; favored the initiative, referendum, and recall; wanted direct election of legislatures
initiative
voters could directly propose legislation themselves
Referendum
would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people (especially laws that had been passed through a compliant legislation in favor of big business)
recall
enabled voters to remove faithless elected officials, especially those who had been bribed by big businesses
secret Australian Ballot
was being introduced more widely to counteract the boss rule
seventeenth Amendment
established direct election of U. S. Senators
Robert La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin; most militant of the progressive Republic leaders;got some control of his state's crooked corporations and gave them back to the people; perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities
Hiram johnson
Republican governor of California; helped to break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad
Charles Hughes
Famous for being an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust
Florence Kelly
Became illinois's first chief factory inspector and one of the nation's leading advocates for improved factory conditions; took control of the National Consumers League
Muller v. Oregon
persuaded Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies; at the time a celebration of acknowledgement of women; later led to less jobs accepting women and is discriminatory special protection
Louis Brandeis
won the Muller v. Oregon case
Lochner vs. New York
invalidated a New York law giving bakers a ten hour day
Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
killed many immigrant women; showed the fire hazards and bad conditions of the workplace; led to New York passing much stronger laws regulating the hours and conditions of sweatshop toil
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
gave support to antiliquor campaigners
Theodore Roosevelt
big on reforms; made a plan based on the three C's (control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources)
George Baer
reflected the High-and-Mighty attitude of ungenerous employers (during a mining strike); eventually forced to negotiate with the miners by Theodore Roosevelt
Bureau of Corporations
helped to break up monopolies and trusts; created by Theodore Roosevelt
Elkins Act
made it possible to heavily fine railroad and shipping companies who gave rebates to each other
Northern Securities Company
run by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill; first trust to be broken up by Theodore Roosevelt
Upton Sinclair
wrote The Jungle; appalled the public with the descriptions of the unsanitary food products
Meat Inspection Act
decreed that the preparation of Meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can
Pure Food and Drug Act
designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals
Desert Land Act
sold cheap,arid land to people as long as they agreed to irrigate it within three years
Forest Reserve Act
authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves
Carey Act
distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled
Gifford Pinchot
conservationist; dedicated to conserving nature before Theodore Roosevelt; believed that wilderness was a waste
Newlands Act
said the government was authorized to collect money from the sale of public lands and use it for irrigation projects
Jack London
wrote Call of the Wild; reflected America's worry about having too much civilization
Hetch Hetchy Valley
preservationists lost battle; disagreed with people's need to build a dam in this valley in San Francisco
John Muir
naturalist; believed Hetch Hetchy was a temple of nature that should be held inviolable by the civilizing hands of humanity
Aldrich-Vreeland Act
authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
William Jennings Bryan v. William Howard Taft
Election of 1908; William Howard taft won because people felt more comfortable with Roosevelt's chosen predecessor
Eugene Debs
Socialist party nominee; gathered over 400, 000 votes; hero of the Pullman strike of 1894
dollar diplomacy
encouraged Wall Street to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of concern to the U.S. ; believed it would strengthen American defenses and foreign policies
Philander Knox
secretary of state; suggested that the U.S. and foreign bankers by up the railroads in Manchuria and then turn them over to China under a self-liquidating arrangement