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Chapter 1: Introduction and History of Psychology
Terms in this set (28)
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Exm: We usue psychology everyday, analyzing others.
A study conducted via careful observations and scientifically based research
Erroneous assertions or practices set forth as being scientific psychology
Exm: Astrology, fortune telling, horoscopes, graphology, etc.
The tendency to attend to evidence that compliments and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not
Exm: Hear the things we want to hear.
Psychologists who do research on basic psychological processes - as contrasted with applied psychologists; also called research psychologists
Teachers of Psychology
Psychologists whose priamary job is teaching
Exm: They typically teach in high schools, colleges, and universities; Mrs. Bento
Psychologists who use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems
Exm: They work in different places such as clinics, schools, airports, and factories.
A medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
Exm: Psychiatrists look at patients with a medical viewpoint.
A historical school of psychology devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought
Exm: Structuralists focused on the "elements" that made up the mind.
The process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experiences
Exm: Describing your sensations to different stimuli.
A historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function
Exm: They believed the mental process was continually changing.
A historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception and perceptual learning
Exm: Instead of parts, they focused on the whole; opposite of Structuralists.
A historical school (as well as a modern perspective) that hyas sought to make psychology an objective science focused only on behavior - to the exclusion of mental processes
Exm: They argued that objective science of psychology should only deal with what you observe.
An approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's assertions, which emphasize unconscious processes. The term is used to refer broadly to both Freud's psychoanalytic theory and to his psychoanalytic treatment method
Exm: The psychoanalytic theory is quite an important idea in modern psychology.
The psychological perspective that searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system, and the endocrine (hormone) system
Exm: Puts emphasis on how brain activity and our composition has an impact on our behavior, personality, ablilities, and preferences.
The field devoted to understanding how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, motives, consciousness, memories, and other mental processes
Exm: This has led to discoveries of brain wave patterns.
A relatively new specialty in psychology that sees behavior and mental processes in terms of their genetic adaptions for survival and reproduction
Exm: Suggests that human traits came from our ancestral past.
The psychological perspective emphasizing chnages that occur across the lifespan
Exm: Our genes and surroundings shape have an influence of who we become.
The psychological perspective emphasizing mental processes, such as learning, memory, perception, and thinking, as forms of information processing
Exm: How we interpret our experiences has an effect on what we think and do.
Exm: Thinking, memory, perception, and senssation
An interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing
Exm: Involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain.
The psychological perspective emphasizing mental health and mental illness. Psychodynamic and humanistic psychology are variations on the clinical view
Exm: Those adhering to this view commonly practice counseling or psychotherapy.
A clinical viewpoint emphasizing the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts
Exm: This view puts emphasis on treating mental disorders.
A clinical viewpoint emphasizing human ability, growth, potential, and free will
Exm: Puts emphasis on human nature such as human growth, potential, and ability.
A psychological perspective that finds the source of our actions in environmental stimuli, rather than in inner mental processes
Exm: Rewards and punishments can have an effect on the way we act.
A psychological perspective emphasizing the importance of social interaction, social learning, and a cultural perspective
Exm: This view has been used to explore obedience, aggression, loving, and conformity.
A complex blend of language, beliefs, customs, values, and traditions developed by a group of people and shared with others in the same environment
Exm: Culture has a great influence on us.
A psychological perspective that views behavior and personality as the products of enduring psychological characteristics
Exm: View common among psychologists why do mental testing.
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