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Pakistan Exam 2 PL SCI 469
Terms in this set (29)
- founder of Pakistan.
- Served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence in 1947
- Pakistan's first Governor-General from independence until his death
- In 1937, the congress refused to form coalition administrations with the Muslim League in mixed areas. - Relations between Hindus and Muslims began to deteriorate
- He always believed that Hindu-Muslim unity was possible, but reluctantly came to the view that partition was necessary to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims.
- His insistence on this issue through negotiations with the British government resulted in the partition of India and the formation of the state of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.
- second President of Pakistan
- His standing began to slide amid allegations of widespread vote rigging
- Proceeding with a peace agreement with India to end the war, many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise and demonstrations across the country over rising prices, including those led by Z.A. Bhutto!!
- In 1969, he resigned and handed over power to General Yahya Khan, who declared martial law for the second time.
- His legacy remains mixed
- he is credited with economic prosperity and what supporters dub the decade of development
- but is criticized for beginning the first of the army's incursions into civilian politics, and policies that later led to the creation of Bangladesh.
- served as the 3rd President of Pakistan from 1969 until East Pakistan's secession to Bangladesh in 1971, and Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani war of the same year
He dissolved the government and declared martial law for the second time in Pakistan's history. He held the country's first free and fair elections in 1970
In December 1971, regional tensions escalated into the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, with neighbouring India intervening on the side of the Bengali fighters. Pakistan was defeated on 16 December 1971, with less than 45000 of its army officers and other ranks in Dhaka turning prisoners of war, and East Pakistan seceding to become Bangladesh. He handed over the presidency to Bhutto and stepped down as army chief in disgrace.
Pakistani politician and statesman who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.
Bhutto set about rebuilding Pakistan he stated his intention to 'rebuild confidence and rebuild hope for the future'. By July 1972, Bhutto had recovered 93,000 prisoners of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held territory after signing the Simla Agreement. In foreign affairs, he strengthened ties with the Soviet Union, China and Saudi Arabia, and recognized the sovereignty of Bangladesh.
Liaqat Ali Khan
the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he was also the first Defence Minister of Pakistan, the first Finance Minister of India, and the minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
It has been alleged that the Afghan and US governments were involved in his assassination, although this claim has not merited any substantial evidence.
His foreign policy sided with the United States and the West, though his foreign policy was determined to be a part of the Non-Aligned Movement. Facing internal political unrest, his government survived a coup hatched by the leftists and communists. Nonetheless, his influence grew further after Jinnah's death, and he was responsible for promulgating the Objectives Resolution. In 1951, at a political rally in Rawalpindi, he was assassinated by a hired assassin, Sa'ad Babrak.
He is called the "Spiritual father of Pakistan". He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages.
Iqbal is admired as a prominent poet by Pakistanis, Indians, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans and other international scholars of literature.
Though he is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed "Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times".
While dividing his time between law practice and poetry, he had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Mohammad Ali Jouhar and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus, and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.
Zia ul Haq
a Pakistani general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977. He was Pakistan's longest-serving head of state.
Assuming the presidency in 1978, he played a major role in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Aided by the United States and Saudi Arabia, he systematically coordinated the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet occupation throughout the 1980s.
This culminated in the Soviet Union's withdrawal in 1989, but also led to the proliferation of millions of refugees, with heroin and weaponry into Pakistan's frontier province. On the foreign front, Zia also bolstered ties with China, the European Union, the United States, and emphasised Pakistan's role in the Islamic world, while relations with India worsened amid the Siachen conflict and accusations that Pakistan was aiding the Khalistan movement.
Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada
serving as a senior advocate at the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
the prime advisor to General Pervez Musharraf against maintaining the status quo regarding the 1973 constitutional oath given to the judges prior to the general's coup d'état.
He advised Musharraf who then later included Aziz Munshi as a law minister to seek the consent of the Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui for the legitimacy of his rule.
He is a highly-controversial figure amongst political and judicial circles in Pakistan due to his regular legal work in ensuring the legitimacy of Pakistani military rulers, as well as offering his services to a wide variety of entities seeking on ensuring the status quo in the country.
For such reasons, he is regarded as a maverick lawyer with no firm stance on political matters.
the 12th and current Prime Minister of Pakistan in office since June 2013. A veteran politician and industrialist, he is the president of Pakistan Muslim League, which is currently Pakistan's largest political party, and has formed the government.
He entered politics in the 1980s when in the general elections of 1985, he won with an overwhelming majority, both in the National and Provincial Assemblies.
Sharif successfully challenged the President's decision in the Supreme Court, but both men were ultimately persuaded to step down in 1993 by army chief Abdul Waheed Kakar.
When Western countries suspended foreign aid, Sharif froze the country's foreign currency reserves to prevent further capital flight, but this only worsened economic conditions.
the founding leader of Bangladesh. Bengali leader who became the first prime minister (1972-75) and later the president (1975) of Bangladesh
Although jailed briefly as a teenager for agitating for Indian independence, he began his formal political career in 1949 as a cofounder of the Awami League.
The league advocated political autonomy for East Pakistan, the detached eastern part of Pakistan.
His arrest in the late 1960s incited mob violence that eroded the Pakistani president's authority in East Pakistan.
East Pakistan, renamed Bangladesh, was proclaimed an independent republic in 1971, and in January 1972 he, recently released from prison, became the country's first prime minister.
Faced with increasing problems, he took tighter control and assumed the presidency in January 1975.
He, along with most of his family, was killed in a coup d'état just seven months later.
one of four provinces in Pakistan
one of four provinces in Pakistan
an Indian-Pakistani scholar, philosopher, jurist, journalist, islamist.
He was the founder of the Jamaat-e-Islami, the largest Islamic organisation in Asia.
He and his party are thought to have been the pioneer in politicizing islam and generating support for an Islamic state in Pakistan.
They are thought to have helped inspire General Zia-ul-Haq to introduce "Sharization" to Pakistan, (Sharia laws decreed by Zia included bans on interest on loans (riba), deduction by the government of 2.5% annual Zakat tax from bank accounts, introduction of Islamic punishments such as stoning and amputation with the 1979 Hudood Ordinances.
the eldest daughter of Z.A. Bhutto, a former prime minister himself who founded the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP).
She was the first woman to become democratically elected head of any Muslim nation.
In 1988, she became the first woman to be elected as the head of an Islamic state's government
she also remains Pakistan's only female prime minister.
Despite her western and positive image in the world, Bhutto's controversial policies and support have made her legacy much more complicated.
a Pakistani nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer.
the founder of the uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's atomic bomb project.
He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving as both its senior scientist and Director-General until his retirement in 2001.
He was also an early and vital figure in other Pakistani national science projects, making major contributions in research on molecular morphology, the physics of martensite alloys, condensed matter physics and materials physics.
He faced heated and intense criticism from his fellow theorists whom he had worked with in the atomic bomb project, most notably theorist Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy.
an Islamic political organisation and social conservative movement founded in 1941 in British India by the Islamist theologian and socio-political philosopher, Abul Ala Maududi.
Along with the Muslim Brotherhood, founded in 1926, it was one of the original and most influential Islamist organisations, and the first of its kind to develop "an ideology based on the modern revolutionary conception of Islam".
The group split into separate independent organisations in India and Pakistan -- Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan and Jamaat-e-Islami Hind—following the Partition of India in 1947.
Pakistan Muslim League
the political convention of several schisms of Muslim League in Pakistan.
Founded in 1949 as an original party by Liaquat Ali Khan to consolidate the political position of the party.
The convention was forced out by the martial law imposed by President Iskandar Mirza in 1958.
It was reformed and reemerged by President Ayub Khan when one of resourceful convention went to sponsored Ayub Khan's bid for presidential elections in 1965.
Pakistan People's Party
a centre-left, socialist-progressive, and social democratic political party in Pakistan.
Affiliated with the Socialist International, its political philosophy and position, in the country's political spectrum, is considered centre-left, involves supporting public ownership, egalitarianism, equality, and strong national defense.
Since its foundation in 1967, it had been a major and influential political left-wing force in the country and its party's leadership has been dominated by the members of the Bhutto-Zardari family.
Its centre of power lies in the southern province of Sindh.
the major progressive political party in East and West Pakistan.
It was founded in 1957 in Dhaka, erstwhile East Pakistan, by Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani and Yar Mohammad Khan, through the merger of various leftist and progressive political groups in Pakistan.
Commonly known as the NAP, it was a major opposition party to Pakistani military regimes for much of the late 1950s and mid 1960s.
In 1967 the party split into two factions, one in East Pakistan and another in West Pakistan.
a political alliance consisting of ultra-conservative, Islamist, religious, and far-right parties of Pakistan that opposed President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz.
Formed in 2002 in a direct opposition to the policies led by President Pervez Musharraf to support for the United States' war in Afghanistan, the alliance more densely consolidated its position during the nationwide general elections held in 2002.
Islamic Society of Students (IJT)
Qazi Hussein Ahmed
an Islamic scholar, clergyman, democracy activist, and former Emir of Jamaat-e-Islami, the rightist and socially conservative Islamist political party in Pakistan.
a strong critic of the counter-terrorism policy of the United States, and was widely known for his opposition to the United States' participation in the war against the Taliban in neighbouring Afghanistan.
an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
From 1996 to 2001, it held power in Afghanistan and enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, of which the international community and leading Muslims have been highly critical.
The movement originated in the early 1990s, but was not fully unified until its 1994 capture of Kandahar.
the capital city of Pakistan
a Sunni Deobandi Islamic political party in Pakistan. Established as JUI in 1945, it is the result of a factional split of 1988, F standing for the name of its leader, Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman.
a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam. It is centered in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, has recently spread to the United Kingdom, and has a presence in South Africa.
Refers to a group who venerate the Sunnah and seek to propagate it. They adhere to the beliefs of the companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him.
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