Review on final test info. ch 11 and 12!!
George Kelly B.F. Skinner
Terms in this set (54)
What do we use our construct system for?
To interpret what is going on now and predicting the future; to be able to predict the future better by using our experiences.
In any construct system, how do we test hypotheses? what did they test their hypothesis is to?
Hypotheses testing; Expect something to happen. For example, Mrs. Kelly says it's expected to see 12/15 people in class tonight based on experiences and knowing that we want the extra credit.
getting paid weekly is an example of what schedule of endorsement according to Skinner?
Fixed interval; interval = time ( week, month, seconds)
What would be an example of fixed ratio?
a variable ratio; workers paid for how much they produce. For example, when Ms. Kelly does a job and returns a report, she gets paid.
According to Skinner, when a specific stimulus elicits a response, it's called:
we do something to change something in our environment.
Which corollary explained how we construe the construction of others?
What is George Kelly's approach to personality called?
Personal construct theory
What is the main characteristic of the organization corollary?
The relationship of some to others; some constructs are subordinate to others; allows us to adjust/be flexible
Skinner believed that people were shaped primarily by what?
learning; what we learn
What schedule of reinforcement to slot machines represent?
When our constructs are formed, can they change? Can they last a long time?
What happened when the token economy was used in hospital?
Behavior changed, but it only lasts in that environment; learning in a limited context.
Kelly's theory is based on the idea that:
themes come from experiences
In a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement:
the reinforcer is presented following the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. That interval could be ANY amount of time. The timing or reinforcement has nothing to do with the number of responses. The reinforcer still arrives only after the passage of a given time period and the emission of the correct response
Piecework is an example of what kind of schedule of reinforcement?
Variable interval reinforcement schedule
In Kelly's theory, what are the two keywords?
interval and ratio
In Kelly's theory, _____ means the same and _____ means changing.
If fixed interval reinforcement schedule amount of time is shortened:
then behavior or response goes up/increases.
According to Skinner, people are products of what?
our environment because it guides our behaviors
Why would Skinner say that people are not responsible for their actions?
Because we got reinforced somehow; something in the environment drove them; if you change the environment, you changed the behavior.
Which is more effective, punishment or negative reinforcement?
An example of negative reinforcement:
you don't have to do the chores if you do well; lower insurance if you are a good driver.
The example of positive reinforcement:
you will get a free one-year insurance plan if you are a safe driver.
An example of punishment:
could get license revoked if they have too many tickets.
Superstitious behavior is learned quickly but when?
When Something reinforcing happens, (positive/negative) which is completely unrelated; and it's a coincidence that cannot be emperically linked/related.
Choices that help define the construct system?
1. High risk choices (better)~Have lower predictability and higher risk, but you can learn more and expand knowledge.
2. Low risk choices ~ have a high predictability and low risk
What does permeability mean when it comes to the construct system?
Allowance of change, open to new experiences; more permeability = more open to new things
For more than any other theorists, Kelly's theory represents what kind of functioning?
intellectual/cognitive: you have to think.
Does Kelly believe we have a hierarchy of needs?
What makes us tolerate inconsistency?
If a person were to only select high risk high reward in dichotomy construct corollary, what does it do to our construct?
Extends our system
Which is the corollary that says people perceive experiences in different ways?
According to Kelly, if we are to anticipate future events, our constructs must always:
be framed in terms of a pair of mutually exclusive alternatives
What is self-control according to Skinner?
Conscious control of behavior; You can place/choose environment in which you will receive more positive reinforcement
People differ from one another in interpreting events. Which corollary?
What was Kelly's main contribution to assessment?
Role construct repetory test (REP)
For every explanation of personality Skinner would substitute:
When looking at rational functioning, are humans able to solve problems?
What is the role construct preparatory test used for?
To uncover patterns of constructs
Big book from Skinner?
Once we form a construct, what do we do?
Test against reality.
We (college students) like people:
whose constructs are similar to ours.
To Skinner, psychology is the science of:
Should constructs be based on exact replications of events?
No; it's broader than event
Who were Skinner's influences?
Pavlov and Watson
Kelly's approach is:
the personal construct theory.
Why do we reevaluate constructs?
We are always having new experiences.
Range of convenience:
how applicable are constructs? How are they useful?
What happens when reinforcement stops?
What type of behavior is meant by pressing a letter in a Skinner box?
According to Kelly, when we go about our lives, we act like: