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AP Biology - Chapter 2: Chemical Principles

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Covalent bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms...the strongest of the three chemical bonds
Neutron
the uncharged particle in the atomic nucleus
Proton
the positively charged particle in the atomic nucleus; a hydrogen ion
Atomic number
thenumbers he number of protons in the nucleus
Electron
particles with a negative charge that move in shells around the nucleus
Hydrogen bond
a weak bond formed, for example, by the slight positive charge at the hydrogen end of the water molecule reacting with the negative end of other molecules
Ionic bond
a bond formed by the gain or loss of electrons from the outer electron shell
Substrate
the substance upon which an enzyme acts
Enzyme
a protein that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction
Molecular weight
the sum of the atomic weights of a molecule's atoms
Catabolism
the collective term for all decomposition reactions
Mole
the number of grams equal to molecular weight
Anabolism
the collective term for all synthesis reactions
Valence
the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom; the combining capacity of an atom
Cation
an ion with a positive charge
Isomer
one of two molecule's with the same chemical formula but different structures
Buffer
prevents drastic change in pH
Salt
substance that dissociates into ions that are neither OH- nor H+
Acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; a proton donor
Base
dissociates into one or more negative hydroxide ions such as OH-
Molecule
combinations of atoms that have gained stability by completing the full complement of electrons in the outer-most shell
Polysaccharide
eight or more glucose molecules in a chain
Lipid
Sterol; large organic compounds made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen; examples are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids; are insoluble in water and used by cells for energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings, such as in membranes
Condensation
production of a molecule of water during synthesis
Protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Conjugated proteins
lipoprotein
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
results from the release of energy by separation of the terminal phosphate group
DNA
Nucleic acid; deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Isotope
same number of protons in the nucleus but different weights
Compound
a molecule containing at least two kinds of atoms, such as water
Molecule
an atom that is stable because it has its full complement of electrons
Stereoisomer
the D and L forms of an amino acid; isomers with the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms
Product
the substance formed by a reaction
Disaccharide
sucrose; sugar with two monosaccharides
Nucleotide
purines or pyrimidines attached to a pentode sugar, but without a phosphate group; monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Carbohydrate
have a hydrogen-to-oxygen ratio of 2:1; compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms...major source of energy for the human body
Cytosine
in DNA, it will pair with guanine
Uracil
in RNA, it replaces thymine
Deoxyribose
the five-carbon sugar in DNA
Peptide
bonds between amino acids in proteins