an organism that is the offspring of many generations that have the same trait ex: AA or aa
What happened during mendel's expirement?
At first he cross polunated a tall plant TT and a short plant tt. The first generation was ALL tall but in the second generation some of the plants were short again.
If an allele is represented by a capitol letter, what does this indicate?
it indicates that it has a dominant allele so it will have the dominant trait
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
it's where the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive as a result both alleles are expressed in the offspring
How are the symbols for codominant alles written?
They are written with the first letter of the trait first and then the first letter of the color above a little, Fw Fb
it's when genetic material from two parents combines to produce a new organism which differs from both parents
What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
the theory is that genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
What happens during meiosis?
the chromosome pairs seperate and are distributed to two different cells. the resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism
What are chromosomes are made up of?
they are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string
What do the order of the nirtogen bases do?
they form a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced
What happens during protein synthesis?
the cell uses info from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein
RNA that copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm
What are the nirtrogen bases that pair up?
cytosine and guanine pair up and thymine and adanine pair up
What are the steps for DNA replication?
step 1: DNA unzips, Step 2: Nitrogen bases floating in the nucleus match up with the unzipped DNA Step 3: Two new DNA strands are formed that have the exact same sequence (order of base pairs)
What are the steps for protein synthesis?
STEP 1:messenger RNA production- DNA unzips, messenger RNA strand is made, STEP 2:messenger RNA goes out into the cytoplasm and attatches to a ribosome STEP 3: transport RNA attatches to the messenger RNA, the codon match with the anti-codon, the tRNA carries a specific amino acid thats adds to the growing protein, STEP 4: Protein production then continues
If a DNA sequence was ATTCGGCTA, what would the corresponding side be?
It would be TAAGCCGAT because Adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine
If a RNA sequence was UGCGCAUAGC what would the corresponding sequence be?
it would be ACGCGUAUCG because adenine pairs with uracile and guanine pairs with cytosine