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the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring


each different form of a characteristic


the scientific study of heredity


when a new organsim begins to form when egg and sperm join in this process


an organism that is the offspring of many generations that have the same trait ex: AA or aa

What happened during mendel's expirement?

At first he cross polunated a tall plant TT and a short plant tt. The first generation was ALL tall but in the second generation some of the plants were short again.


the factors that control a trait


different forms of a gene

Dominant allele

one whose trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present

Recessive allele

is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present


an organism that has two different alleles for a trait ex: Kk or Tt

If an allele is represented by a capitol letter, what does this indicate?

it indicates that it has a dominant allele so it will have the dominant trait


a number that describes how likely it is that a certain event will occur

Punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross


an organism's physical appearance or visible traits ex: a yellow pea pod


an organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations ex: Ll LL ll


an organism that has two of the same alleles for a trait


an organism that has two different alleles, it can be dominant or recessive


it's where the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive as a result both alleles are expressed in the offspring

How are the symbols for codominant alles written?

They are written with the first letter of the trait first and then the first letter of the color above a little, Fw Fb

Sexual reproduction

it's when genetic material from two parents combines to produce a new organism which differs from both parents


cell contains two sets of chromosomes, one set from each parent

What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?

the theory is that genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes

What is the relationship between chromosomes and alleles?

Alleles are inside the chromosomes


the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells

What happens during meiosis?

the chromosome pairs seperate and are distributed to two different cells. the resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism

What are chromosomes are made up of?

they are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string

What do the order of the nirtogen bases do?

they form a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced

What happens during protein synthesis?

the cell uses info from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein

Messenger RNA

RNA that copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm

Transfer RNA

RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes and adds them to the growing protein

What are the nirtrogen bases that pair up?

cytosine and guanine pair up and thymine and adanine pair up


a change in gene or chromosome

Mutations can cause...

a cell to produce an incorrect protein during protein synthesis

What are two types of mutations?

substitution deletion addition

What are the steps for DNA replication?

step 1: DNA unzips, Step 2: Nitrogen bases floating in the nucleus match up with the unzipped DNA Step 3: Two new DNA strands are formed that have the exact same sequence (order of base pairs)

What are the steps for protein synthesis?

STEP 1:messenger RNA production- DNA unzips, messenger RNA strand is made, STEP 2:messenger RNA goes out into the cytoplasm and attatches to a ribosome STEP 3: transport RNA attatches to the messenger RNA, the codon match with the anti-codon, the tRNA carries a specific amino acid thats adds to the growing protein, STEP 4: Protein production then continues

What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

RNA has uracile isnstead of thymine

If a DNA sequence was ATTCGGCTA, what would the corresponding side be?

It would be TAAGCCGAT because Adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine

If a RNA sequence was UGCGCAUAGC what would the corresponding sequence be?

it would be ACGCGUAUCG because adenine pairs with uracile and guanine pairs with cytosine

What is a codon?

a codon is the 3 bases on the messenger RNA

What is a anti-codon?

A anti-codon is the 3 bases on the transport RNA

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