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Zone of Proximal Development


The process of Learning and Adapting to a culture

Authentic Activities

Relevant and genuine activities that require use of the skills being taught


When support is given to the student in their ZPD until they can do it themselves

Teacher's role

Mediation; a teacher or more capable peer mediates the learner's experience by helping them make sense out of it

Direct Instruction

Explicit instruction by teacher, aproximation by student, followed by immediate feedback


Providing a model or example for students to follow


Chunking into small pieces and giving support to ensure success/ mastery

Verbal scaffolding

paraphrasing; rephrasing, chants & songs, sentence frames

Visual scaffolding

graphic organizers, picture word walls, timelines, charts

Procedural scaffolding

predictable routines such as daily schedule, turning things in the same place, using common structures (i.e., #'d heads)

Frey/ Fisher Model for teaching (combines all 3)

I do it
We do it
Ya'll do it (plural)
You do it (singular)


What one can do under the ideal conditions


does not always equal competence; only shows what was done under the particular circumstances

Language Competence

knowing what sounds right functions of language

Referential Function

give and get basic information

Expressive Function

show attitude about what you are saying

Integrative Function

marks social identity or status


a particular form of language that includes choices of syntax, vocabulary & pronunciation

grammatical competence

the ability to recognize & produce grammatical structures and use them effectively in communication


the sound system of a language


the structure of words (what endings and prefixes can be added)


the ORDER of the words: AND the order of the words to convey intended meaning


word meaning-how words are used to convey different meanings

Communicative Competence

(Pragmatics: knowing WHAT to SAY, to WHOM, in WHAT circumstances

Communicative competence

closely linked to understanding the culture and rules of interaction/communication

ELs need to learn

the rules that govern classroom interactions

Rules that govern classroom

entering/exiting conversations
take turns in conversation
body space
touchy when talking

Strategic competence

strategies that language learners use to allow them to communicate when they don't have words; gestures, expressions, circumlocution, rehearsal strategies (including writing it down ahead of time)


words from different languages that share common roots


need to teach strategies so that ELs don't avoid communication when they have something to say

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