31 terms


Zone of Proximal Development
The process of Learning and Adapting to a culture
Authentic Activities
Relevant and genuine activities that require use of the skills being taught
When support is given to the student in their ZPD until they can do it themselves
Teacher's role
Mediation; a teacher or more capable peer mediates the learner's experience by helping them make sense out of it
Direct Instruction
Explicit instruction by teacher, aproximation by student, followed by immediate feedback
Providing a model or example for students to follow
Chunking into small pieces and giving support to ensure success/ mastery
Verbal scaffolding
paraphrasing; rephrasing, chants & songs, sentence frames
Visual scaffolding
graphic organizers, picture word walls, timelines, charts
Procedural scaffolding
predictable routines such as daily schedule, turning things in the same place, using common structures (i.e., #'d heads)
Frey/ Fisher Model for teaching (combines all 3)
I do it
We do it
Ya'll do it (plural)
You do it (singular)
What one can do under the ideal conditions
does not always equal competence; only shows what was done under the particular circumstances
Language Competence
knowing what sounds right functions of language
Referential Function
give and get basic information
Expressive Function
show attitude about what you are saying
Integrative Function
marks social identity or status
a particular form of language that includes choices of syntax, vocabulary & pronunciation
grammatical competence
the ability to recognize & produce grammatical structures and use them effectively in communication
the sound system of a language
the structure of words (what endings and prefixes can be added)
the ORDER of the words: AND the order of the words to convey intended meaning
word meaning-how words are used to convey different meanings
Communicative Competence
(Pragmatics: knowing WHAT to SAY, to WHOM, in WHAT circumstances
Communicative competence
closely linked to understanding the culture and rules of interaction/communication
ELs need to learn
the rules that govern classroom interactions
Rules that govern classroom
entering/exiting conversations
take turns in conversation
body space
touchy when talking
Strategic competence
strategies that language learners use to allow them to communicate when they don't have words; gestures, expressions, circumlocution, rehearsal strategies (including writing it down ahead of time)
words from different languages that share common roots
need to teach strategies so that ELs don't avoid communication when they have something to say