AQA GCSE Geography Changing Urban Environments Facts

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What is the definition of Urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the process by which there is an increase in the proportion (not number) of people living in urban areas (and there is a reduction living in rural areas)
When does Urbanisation occur?
when the urban population is growing faster than the population of the country as a whole
What is rural-urban migration?
the movement of people from villages and country districts to towns and cities- this leads to rural depopulation
How did rural-migration begin?
it began when cities were demanding for unskilled people to work hard laboring hours- pulling migrants into the urban environment
What is the model called that makes people want to either stay in the rural areas or go to the urban areas?
Push-Pull model
What are the push factors that make people want to move away from rural areas? (Give 5 examples)
- lack of facilities
- lack of social life
- lack of transport
- lack of healthcare
- lack of jobs
What are the pull factors that are making people want to move to the urban areas? (Give 5 examples)
- more houses
- more entertainment
- more food supplies
- larger healthcare support
- larger number of facilities
What does LDC stand for in terms of countries?
Less Developed Country
What does MDC stand for in terms of countries?
More Developed Country
What does MEDC stand for in terms of countries?
More Economically Developed Country
What are the two other reasons why rates of urbanisation in the developing world have been so high?
- high fertility rates (large numbers of children per woman)
- high rates of natural increase (birth rates higher than death rates)
Where are high fertility rates and high rates of natural increase effecting the most?
in the more LDC
What is a household?
a person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address sharing a living room
What is a brownfield site?
land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused- sites are often found in the inner city
What is a greenfield site?
land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of built-up areas
When were the Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) set up?
set up in the 80s and 90s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment
What is the City Challenge?
a strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils
What is Regeneration?
improving an area
What is the definition of a Sustainable community?
community that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life
What is the definition of a Quality of life?
how good a persons life is as measured by such things as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how contented and satisfied they are with their lifestyle
What is the Park and Ride scheme?
a bus service running to key places from car parks. Prices are cheap so people can get around much easier
What is segregation?
occurs where people of a particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups
What are the issues of housing in rich urban areas?
- rising urban population
- social changes:
- people get married later
-divorces have increased ( more houses
needed)
-people are living longer
What is the issue of the inner city in rich urban areas?
- quality of housing declined
- solutions include:
- UDCs
- City Challenge
- Sustainable communities
When were UDCs introduced?
- introduced in 1980s
- first established 1981
Where were the UDCs located?
- London Dockland Development Corporations (LDDC)
- Merseyside Development Corporations (MDC)
How long did the LDDC last for?
17 years
What were some of the LDDC achievements in their last year? (Give 5 examples)
-£1.86 billion in public sector investment
-£7.7 billion in the private sector investment
-24,046 new homes built on brownfield and greenfield sites
-2,700 businesses
-144 km of new and improved roads
What is the issue of traffic in rich urban areas?
- traffic congestion- normal flow of traffic and developments
- solutions include:
- Park and ride
- Cycle lanes
- Congestion charges
- Super trams
What are the advantages of Cycle tracks?
- reduces car pollution
- increases fitness of cyclists
What are the disadvantages of Cycle tracks?
- have to pay for people to mark out the paths
- cannot be everywhere
Are Cycle tracks Sustainable?
- yes- cars can't drive on the cycle paths so they wont be destroyed
What are the advantages of the Park and Ride scheme?
- reduce the number of vehicles on main roads
- reduce traffic fumes, noise and conjestion
What are the disadvantages of the Park and Ride scheme?
- generally non-stop services
- pricey
Is the Park and Ride scheme Sustainable?
- yes- it offers a round trip around the city without paying the price of petrol and traffic
What is the advantage of Traffic calming?
- slows cars down- safe
What is the disadvantage of Traffic calming?
- one way roads
Is Traffic calming Sustainable?
- no- people don't give way
What are the advantages of Super trams?
- regular services
- can carry 206 passengers
What are the disadvantages of Super trams?
- uses a lot of electricity, causes noise and air pollution
Are Super trams Sustainable?
-yes- it is a cheap way to travel around a town
What is the advantage of Congestion charging?
- provides money which goes to improving public transport
What is the disadvantage of Congestion charging?
- they tax the motorists
Is Congestion charging Sustainable?
- no- people don't follow what signs say
What are the issues of multicultural mix in rich urban areas?
- segregation- support from others- sense of belonging
- specialist facilities
- employment factors
- solutions include:
- social inclusion
- sharing resources
What is the issue of the central business district in rich urban areas?
- decline in use due to an increase in out of town shopping centres
- solution:
- invest of tax payers money
What are the advantages of building on brownfield sites? (6 examples)
- easier to get planning permission- councils want brownfield sites built on
- sites in cities are used up
- utilities (water) are already provided
- roads already exist
- near to facilities in town centres
- cuts down commuting
What are the advantages of building on greenfield sites? (6 examples)
- new sites are cheaper to prepare
- no restrictions of existing road network
- pleasant countryside environment- appealing
- local facilities
- cheaper land (plots can be bigger)
- bigger gardens
What are the Environmental Problems of the inner city?
- housing is either old terraces or cheap tower blocks
- many derelict buildings- factories, churches etc. are vandalized
- shortage of open space; most of what exists is wasteland
What are the Social problems of the inner city?
- above-average number of prisoners, single-parent families, ethnic minorities and students
- poorer than average levels of health
- higher than average levels of drug abuse and crime
- difficult police- community relations
What are the Economical problems of the the inner city?
- local employment declined- industries and docks closed
- higher than average rates of unemployment- especially for young and ethnic minorities
- high cost of land compared with the suburbs
- low income and widespread poverty
What is rapid urbanisation?
is the process by which there is an accelerating increase in the proportion (not number) of people living in urban areas (reduction living in rural areas)
What is development?
stages of improvement in terms of social, economical and end environmental factors
What are squatter settlements?
areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people of any materials they can find on land that does not belong to them . Such settlements have different names in different parts of the world (Favela in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns
What is an informal sectors?
part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. mending bikes) and which are not recognized in official figures
What does Economic mean?
this relates to costs and finances at a variety of levels, from individuals to government
What does Sustainable mean? (2 mark exam question)
meeting the needs of the present without compromising those of the future
What are the recreation 'needs' of a city to make it sustainable?
- protect the green space or add new green space
- develop sports centres on brownfield sites
What are the power 'needs' of a city to make it sustainable?
- solar panels on roofs
- wind turbines
- geothermal
- increase efficiency:
- insulation
- natural lighting
- thermostats
What are the housing 'needs' of a city to make it sustainable?
-develop on brownfield sites
- build multi-storey accomidation
What are the transport 'needs' of a city to make it sustainable?
- public transport- trams, efficient trains
- cycle tracks/ walking routes
What does Carbon neutral (Zero carbon) mean?
the amount of energy taken from the National Grid should be no greater than the amount put back by renewable power sources
What is a Sustainable city?
an urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric, due to local involvement, are able to stand the test of time
What is a Green belt?
land on the edge of a built-up area, where restrictions are placed on buildings to prevent the expansion of towns and cities and to protect the natural environment
What is Incineration?
getting rid of waste by burning it on a large scale at selected sites
What is Urban sprawl?
the uncontrolled outward expansion of the built-up area of a town or city
Give an Example of sustainable living in the UK
The vision of the future sustainable urban living is the eco-town. In 2008, the government put out a grand plan for ten of these to be built by 2020 e.g. BedZed and the Greenhouse Project