45 terms

Glencoe World History Chapter 7 Africa

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Sahara Desert
the largest desert on Earth; south of the "mountainous fringe" on the north coast of Africa
desert, mild zone, rain forest, savanna
4 climate zones
Great Rift Valley
in eastern Africa; "mountains loom over deep canyons;" much of this grassland is populated by wild animals
Congo River
a river in southern Africa that runs through the Congo Basin
plateau
a relatively high, flat land area
Kalahari Desert
one of the largest deserts in Africa, in southern Africa
savanna
broad grassland "dotted with small trees and shrubs"
Nubia
Egypt traded with this area south of them, this area exported ivory, ebony, frankincense, and leopard skins
Kush
civilization in Africa that conquered Egypt; later driven out of the area by the Assyrians because their civilization was still using bronze weaponry; center was the city of Meroe
Axum
lead to the decline of Kush; located in present day Ethiopia; founded by Arabs; exported ivory, frankincense, myrrh, and slaves, and imported textiles, metal goods, wine, and olive oil; converted to Christianity then Islam
King Ezana
Axumite ruler; conquered Kush for control of the ivory trade; converted Axum to Christianity
Ghana
the first great trading state in West Africa; located in the upper NIger River valley; prospered from their possession of iron and gold; highly desired item was salt
Berbers
nomadic peoples whose camel caravans became known as "the fleet of the desert;" carried much trade across the desert
Mali
established by Sundiata Keita; rose in the place of Ghana after its collapse; most of its wealth was built and gold and salt; most of its people were farmers
Timbuktu
famous trading city
Mansa Musa
one of the richest and most powerful kings; doubled the size of Mali; created a strong central government and divided the kingdom into provinces ruled by governors whom he appointed; made a pilgrimage to Makkah
Sunni Ali
created a new dynasty, the Sunni; expanded Songhai; led an army
Muhammad Ture
the Songhai Empire reached the height of its power during his reign; military commander and devout Muslim; overthrew the son of Sunni Ali; created the Askia Dynasty, meaning usurper
Morocco
occupied Songhai and lead to its decline
Bantu
family of languages spoken in central and southern Africa; a member of any group of the African people who speak that language
subsistence farming
growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale
Mogadishu, Mombasa, Kilwa
3 very successful trading ports
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler that called Kilwa "one of the most beautiful towns in the world"
Swahili
a mixed African-Arabic culture that developed along the east coast of Africa; also, the major language used in that area, combining Bantu with Arabic words and phrases
Swahili
national language of Kenya and Tanzania (meaning "coast" in Arabic)
stateless society
a group of independent villages organized by clans and led by a local ruler or clan head
Zambezi River
north of grassland regions where a mixed economy of farming, cattle herding, and trade had developed
Zimbabwe
the wealthiest and most powerful state in South Africa; prospered from the gold trade with the Swahili trading communities
lineage groups
an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community
matrilineal
societies in which descent is traced through the mother
patrilineal
societies in which descent is traced through the father
diviners
people who believe they have the power to fortell events, usually by working with supernatural forces
Ife
the capital of the Yoruba people, produced bronze and iron statues
Benin
influenced by the artists of Ife; in West Africa
griots
special class of storytellers
Kushites
people that conquered Egypt in 633 B.C., used bronze and stone weapons, defeated Assyrians
Tsetse Fly
an insect that infected humans and animals with sleeping sickness
ancestors
A key in African religion was that they believed ________ were closer to the Gods
Shipwrecked Syrians
How was Christianity introduced into Axum
Myrrh and Frankincense
two aromatic tree resins
Fleets of the Desert
Berber camel caravans were known as what?
Salt
a highly desired trade item of the Ghanians
Ashanti
people of Ghanna that worshiped Nyame and a group of lesser Gods
Sundiata Keita
created the state of Mali, considered the "father" of his nation, defeated the Ghanaians, united the people, and instituted a strong government
Yoruba
a people in Nigeria that believed their chief God sent his son to earth in a canoe to create the first people