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centrioles; microtubules

_____play an important role in cell division and they are made of microtubules


Ligand-gated channels are membrane proteins that open or close in reponse to the binding of chemicals - t or f

The solute will pass down its concentration gradient from solution A to B

Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a nonpermeating solute than solution B, then:

isotonic, 0.9%

A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of normal saline. Normal saline is _______to your blood cells and is about _______NaCi.

hydrophobic; hydrophilic

Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are _____, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are _____.

Protein synthesis

What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell wall destroyed


If a cell doubled in diameter, it would have twice as much cytoplasm to maintain


The Golgi complex makes peroxisomes but not lysosomes

Filtration; hydrostatic pressure

___________is the process in which ________forces water and small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells.


________are membrane proteins that bind to signals by which cells communicate


In the plasma membrane, glycolipids and glycoproteins face toward the cytoplasm, while peripheral proteins always face toward the ECF.


Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are HYDROPHOBIC, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are HYDROPHILIC

Centrioles; microtubules

Centrioles play an important role in cell division, and they are made of microtubules


A cell's second messengers serve to transport material through the plasma membrane.

cases of carrier mediated transport

Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both are cases of carrier-mediated transport.


Cells lining the small intestines are specialized for absoption of nutrients. their plasma membrane has MICROVILLI


Insulin is taken up by endocytosis by endothelial cells lining capillaries, and then transported across the cell to the other side where it is released. This transport is called TRANSCYTOSIS

The Golgi complex; rough ER

THE GOLGI COMPLEX synthesize (s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at ROUGH ER


Pumps consume ATP when transferring solutes fro one side to the other side of the plasma membrane.


Smooth ER is NOT involved in protein synthesis


PEROXISOMES decompose fatty acids, and detoxify alcohol, free radicals, and drugs


White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of Phagocytosis

Volume and surface relationship

What limits how large a cell can be? Most human cells range from 10 to 15 micrometers in diameter

Flagella; cilia; microvilli

Flagella provide motility to a cell, cilia act as sensory "antnna" in many cells, and microvilli increase the cells surface area


Gates respond to all these stimuli fluid except WATER IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
Gates do respond to
Physical deformations of the plasma membrane
changes in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane
chemical messengers


A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

Active Transport

Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell

osmolarity; tonicity

OSMOLARITY describes the number of particles of a solute in solution, whereas TONICITY is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell

higher - shrink

A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of the solutes in the solution is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to SHRINK

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Among other functions, hepatocytes (liver cells) are specialized in detoxifying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM


Although the transmission electron microscope (TEM) can magnify more than a light microscope, even at identical magnifications the TEM has the advantage of PRODUCING HIGHER RESOLUTION


Phospholipids are the most abundant molecules in plasma membrane


Ribosomes are made of proteins and RNA


The flat-shaped cells found covering the skin are SQUAMOUS

muscle = mitochondria

Muscle cells contain numerous MITOCHONDRIA to serve their high demand for ATP.


A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits SPECIFICITY

symport; cotransport

Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier is a SYMPORT and the process is called COTRANSPORT


What organelle is most active in causing programmed cell death


Microvilli and cilia differ in their function but have the same internal structure


Transport of Na+ from a place of low concentration to a place of higher concentration

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

organelle that synthesizes steroids in the ovary and stores calcium in muscle cells


The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT) is one example of an active transport process involving a uniport carrier

kinases adds phospate groups to regulate other enzymes

In its second-messenger role, cAMP activates enzymes called KINASES, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phospate groups to them

Fusiform cells - thick middle tapered ends

FUSIFORM cells are thick in the middle and tapered toward the end.

Osmosis; aquaporins

Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called OSMOSIS, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called aquaporins


The most important advantage of transmission electron microscopes (TEM) over light microscopes (LM) is its higher resolution


Both the nucleus and the mitochondrion are surrounded by two layers of unit embranes


The nucleus is the largest organelle in most cells


The sodium-potassium (Na+-K) pump transports both sodium and potassium UP their concentration gradients in a process called ACTIVE TRANSPORT


These are all membranous organelles except RIBOSOMES


One example of pinocytosis is the uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDL'S) by endothelial cells FALSE


PINOCYTOSIS - brings nonspecific material into a cell


The Na+-K ATPase is a counter-transport antiport carrier, which always requires energy.


GLYCOPROTEINS act like identification tags in the glycocalyx that enable the body ot distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells

Particles can leave cell by the following

simple diffusion
active transport
an antiport system

Particles can leave a cell by any of these means except PINOCYTOSIS

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