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36 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 9

These terms are matched to Myers 8th edition of Psychology chapter 9.
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Automatic processing
refers to our unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space,time, and frequency, and of well-learned information.
Chunking
is the memory technique of organizing material into familiar, meaningful units.
Deja vu
is the false sense that you have already experienced a current situation.
Echoic memory
is the momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, lasting about 3 or 4 seconds.
Effortful processing
is encoding that requires attention and some degree of conscious effort
Encoding
the first step in memory; information is translated into some form that enables it to enter our memory system.
Explicit memories
are memories of facts, including names, images and events. They are also called declarative memories.
Flashbulb memory
an unusually vivid memory of an emotionally important moment in one's life.
hippocampus
is a neural region within the limbic system that is important in the processing of explicit memories for storage.
Iconic memory
is the visual sensory memory consisting of a perfect photographic memory, which lasts no more than a few tenths of a second.
Imagery
refers to mental pictures and can be an important aid to effortful processing.
Implicit memories
are memories of skills, preferences and dispositions. These memories are evidently processed, not by the hippocampus, but by a more primitive part of the brain, the cerebellum. They are also called procedural or nondeclarative memories.
Long-term memory
is the relatively permanent and unlimited capacity memory system into which information from short-term memory may pass.
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
is an increase in a synapse's firing potential following brief, rapid stimulation. LTP is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory.
Memory
the persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information
misinformation effect
is the tendency of eyewitnesses to an event to incorporate misleading information about the event into their memories. At the heart of many false memories, source amnesia refers to misattributing an event to the wrong source.
Mnemonics
are memory aids (the method of loci,acronyms, peg-words, etc.), which often use visual imagery.
Mood-congruent
memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood.
Priming
is the activation, often unconscious, of a web of associations in memory in order to retrieve a specific memory.
Proactive interference
is the disruptive effect of something you already have learned on your efforts to learn or recall new information.
Recall
is a measure of retention in which the person must remember, with few retrieval cues, information learned earlier.
Recognition
is a measure of retention in which one need only identify, rather than recall, previously learned information.
Rehearsal
is the conscious, effortful repetition of information that you are trying either to maintain in consciousness or to encode for storage.
Relearning
is also a measure of retention in that the less time it takes to relearn information, the more that information has been retained.
Repression
is an example of motivated forgetting in that painful and unacceptable memories are prevented from entering consciousness.
Retrieval
is the process of bringing to consciousness information from memory storage.
Retroactive interference
is the disruptive effect of something recently learned on old knowledge.
Semantic encoding
is the processing of information into memory according to its meaning.
Sensory memory
is the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Serial position effect
is the tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be more easily retained than those in the middle.
Short-term memory
is conscious memory, which can hold about seven items for a short time; also called working memory.
Spacing effect
is the tendency for distributed practice to yield better long-term retention than massed practice, or cramming.
Storage
is the passive process by which encoded information is maintained over time.
Visual encoding
is the use of imagery to process information into memory.
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from longterm memory.