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62 terms

Ch 1 Intro

STUDY
PLAY
5 properties of life
responsiveness
growth
movement
metabolism
reproduction
anatomy
describes structures of body;
composition (what they're made of), location, associated structures
gross anatomy
examines large structures;
aka macroscopic anatomy
surface anatomy
exterior anatomical features
regional anatomy
study of body areas
systemic anatomy
study of organs working together
microscopic anatomy
study of cells and molecules
cytology
study of cells and their structures
histology
study of tissues and their structures
physiology
study of function
levels of organization
chemical → ceullular → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
11 organ systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, pulmonary (respiratory), digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
cell
basic unit of life
tissue
group of similar cells performing a similar function
organ
groups of different tissues working together to perform a specific function
organ system
groups of organs working together to perform a specific function
integumentary system
Skin, hair, and nails; covers and protects the body and maintains body temperature
skeletal system
provide protection and support;
bones & cartilage
muscular system
moves and heats body;
muscles & tendons
nervous system
provides speedy communcation signaling within body, sensation (sensory info.), interpretation (consciousness), memory, and movement commands;
brain & spinal cord comprise the Central Nervous System (CNS);
nerves and receptors comprise the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
endocrine system
secretes hormones that help control body activities such as growth and reproduction
hormones
long-lasting and widespreading chemical signals in blood;
eg, thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands
lymphatic system
defends the body from pathogens;
eg thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
pathogen
disease-causing agent (eg, cancer cell, bacteria, virus, fungus, insects, venom)
respiratory system
gas exchange and air movement;
eg, lungs, bronchi, trachea
digestive system
ingests (take in), digests (break down), absorbs (nutrients through cells into blood), excretes waste out of body;
eg, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas
urinary system
filters blood and excretes wastes in urine;
eg, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
reproductive system
produces offspring and sex hormones & sexual characteristics;
eg, ovaries, uterus, vagina, testes, prostate gland
homeostasis
maintenance of equilibrium within a normal range;
"same state";
usually through a negative-feedback mechanism
negative-feedback mechanism
process by which an effector negates/counteracts a stimulus;
returns body to "normal range" (eg body temp);
includes receptor, control center, and effector
receptor
neural detector for a given stimulus (eg, light, pressure, damage)
control center
neuron(s) that process signal and sends instructions to effector;
found in brain or spinal cord
effector
tissue that causes an effect
(eg, muscle that contracts to remove hand from stove
positive-feedback mechanism
response of effector increases change of the stimulus—speeds up processes;
no "normal range" of stimulus;
eg, labor contractions and blood clotting
abdominopelvic quadrants
RUQ - contains the liver and gall bladder;
RLQ - contains the appendix;
LUQ - contains the stomach, spleen;
LLQ - contains the descending colon, rectum
9 abdominopelvic regions
R. hypochondriac — Epigastric — L. hypochondriac;
R. lumbar — Umbilical — L. lumbar;
R. inguinal — Hypogastric — L. inguinal
anatomical position
body standing erect, facing forward, with upper limbs at sides and palms forward; always imagine patient in this position for correct directional term use
superior
above
inferior
below
anterior
towards the front; aka ventral
ventral
towards the front; aka anterior
posterior
towards the back; aka dorsal
dorsal
towards the back; aka posterior
proximal
closer to attachment point on the trunk of body
distal
further from attachment point on the trunk of body
lateral
away from midline
medial
toward midline
peripheral
away from center
plane
imaginary cut that divides the body through the center
section
any slice parallel to a plane
transverse plane
plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka horizontal plane
horizontal plane
plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka transverse plane
frontal plane
vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka coronal plane
coronal plane
vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka frontal plane
midsagittal plane
vertical plane through midline of body from head to pelvic floor; cuts body into equal left and right parts
cavity
space within body containing internal organs
dorsal cavity
1 of 2 major body cavities; contains cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)
ventral cavity
1 of 2 major body cavities; contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
thoracic cavity
superior portion of ventral cavity superior to diaphragm; contains pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum
pleural cavities
cavities within thoracic cavity containing lungs
pericardial cavity
cavity within thoracic cavity contains heart
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior portion cavity below diaphragm; contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic