162 terms

Combo with Government Exam 4 and 3 others

Political Ideology
the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
Political Culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
Political Socialization
The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
Agents of Political Socialization
Family, school and press, mass media, religious beliefs, race and ethnicity, gender, age, religion, historic events, opinion leaders
Political Party
a group of office holders, candidates, activist, and voters who identify with a group label and seek to elect to public office individuals who run under that label
Party Identification
a sense of affiliation that a person has with a particular political party
Temporary party organization
party organization that exists for a limited time and includes several levels of conventions
Permenant party organization
party organization that operates throughout the year, performing the party's functions
Special interest groups
an organization of people with some common interest who try to influence government decisions
direct group involvement in the electoral process
1 endorse/recruit people
2 rate candidates or office holders
3 publish records of candidates
4 provide speaking opportunities and mailing list
5 getting out votes
6 political action commitees
Political Action commitee
federally mandated, offically registered fundraising commitee that represents intrest groups in the political process
Primary Election
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election
General Election
Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices
the activities of a group that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the groups position
A term James Madison used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Third Parties arise??
1 ideology
2 single issues
3 form a strong personality
Conventional Political Participation
political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion; writng letters to government officals, making political contributions, and voting
unconventional Political Participation
political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing
Political Alienation
general feelings of estrangement from the political system; the belief that voting is useless and that individuals cannot influence political events
Political Efficacy
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
Qualification to vote
Over 18, US citizen, Living in Precinct
Candidate Centered Campaigns
campaigns in which candidates set up campaigns organizations, raise money, and campaign independently of other candidates in their party
Party Centered Campaigns
Election campaigns and other political processes in which political parties, not individual candidates, hold most of the initiative and influence.
Historic Third Parties..
Liberty, free soil, American Independent, Reform, Dixie
the roportion of the voting-age public that votes
Retrospective Judgment
a voters evaluation of the performance of the party in power
Prospective judgment
A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
Closed Primary
a primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
Open Primary
a primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote
Crossover voting
participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
an organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party.
Runoff Primary
a second primary election between the two condidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first election
an election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote
an election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the states voters for approval
an election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote
Nomination Campaign
that part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election
the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar
General Election Campaign
that part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election
voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
Voter Canvass
the process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone
Get out the vote
GOTV, a push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls
Campaign Manager
the individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign
Finance Chair
a professional who coordinates the fund-raising efforts for the campaign
a professional who takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns
Direct Mailer
A professional who supervises a political campaign's direct mail fund-raising strategies
Communication Director
developes the overall media strategy for the candidate, blending free press coverage with paid tv radio and mail media
Press Secretary
the individual charged with interacting and communicating with journalists on a daily basis
Internet team
the campaign staff that makes use of web-based resources to communicate with voters, raise funds, organize volunteers, and plan campaign events
Electoral College
representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
member of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state
Midterm Election
Elections held midway between presidential elections.
Paid media
political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign
Free Media
Coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media
New Media
new technologies, such as the internet, that blur the line between paid and free media sources
Positive Ad
advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent
Negative Ad
advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's platform or character
Contrast Ad
ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias toward the sponsor.
Spot Ad
television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in sixty-, thirty-, or ten-second duration
Inoculation Ad
advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
Public Funds
donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates
Matching Funds
donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises
Soft Money
the virtually unregulated money funneled by individuals and political commitees through state and local parties
527 Political Commitees
nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters
501 Commitees
nonprofit and tax-exempt groups that can educates voters about issues and are not required to release the names of their contributors
Article 1, Section 1
defines Congress which is made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate
Article 1, Section 2
defines House of Representatives which is consist of three requirements: 25 years old, citizen for 9 years, resident of the state you represent
Article 1, Section 3
defines the Senate which consist of three requirements: 30 years old, citizen for 9 years, resident of the state you represent
Article 1, Section 8
powers granted to the Congress, enumerated and implied powers
Article 1, Section 9
Sets prohibition(limits) for Congress
House of Representatives...
- 435 members
- 2 year term
- 100 members
- 6 year term
the drawing of legislative boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan or factional advantage
formal way of halting action on a bill by means of long speeches or unlimited debate in the senate
Poket Veto
if Congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill passed without president signature
How a Bill is Passed
-intro. bill
-standing commitee
-rules commitee
-house-senate floor
-debate (set time limit for HOR) (no time limit for Senate)
- vote by majority
-Conference commitee
-approve by President
-sign, veto, nothing
Article 2, Section 1
defines President
1 executive power defined Pres. and VP for 4 years
2 Electoral College established
3 Method of Selection
4 Qualification- natural born citizen, 35 years old, 14 years resident of US
5 Succession
6 Compensation
7 Oath in Office
Article 2, Sections 2 and 3
Powers and responsibilites of Presidental office
Article 2, Section 4
impeachment and removal for treason, bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors
22nd Amendment
prevents president from serving more the two terms or ten years if he came to office via the death or impeachment of his predecessor
25th Amendment
establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of President and VP as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disabilities of a pres.
12th Amendment
added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots
17th Amendment
established the direct election of senators
US v. Nixon
ruling on power of the pres. finding that there is no absolute constitutional executive priviledge to allow a pres. to refuse to comply with a court order to produce info. needed in a trial
War Powers Act
the pres. is limited in the deployment of troops to a 60 day period of peacetime
Marbury v. Madison
supreme court first asserted the power of judicial review in finding that the congressional statute extending the courts original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
Judicial Review
power of the courts to review acts of other branches of governments and the states
authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in any particular case
Senatorial Courtsey
process by which Pres., when selecting district court judges, defer to senators of their own party who represent tha state where the vacancy occurs; or governor selecting an appointee
Article 3, Section 1
1 courts established
2 term
3 compensation
Article 3, Section 2
Jurisdiction established
Article 3, Section 3
Treason defined
1st Amendemnt
Gitlow v. New York and Griswold v. Connecticut
1. Freedom of Religion
2. Freedom of Speech
3. Freedom of Press
4. Freedom of Assembly
5. Petition Government
4th Amendment
Mapp v. Ohio
Protection from Unreasonable Search and Seizures
5th Amendment
Miranda v. Arizona
Protect from government intrusions of life, liberity and property
1. Grand Jury Indictment
2. Double-Jepaordy Life and Limb
3. Self-Incrimination
4. Due Process of Law
5. Eminent Domain
6th Amendment
Gideon v. Wainwright
Right to whom is accused of criminal offense
1. Speedy and Public Trial
2. Trial by impartial Jury
3. Informed of Accusation
4. Cross Examination
5. Complusery Process
6. Right to Counsel
8th Amendment
1. Excessive Bails and Fines
2. Cruel and Unusual Punishment
10th Amendment
New York v. U.S.
Powers Reserved to States
Civil Rights
the government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discrminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on catagories such as race, sex, national origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation
Civil Liberties
the personal gaurantees and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation
Miranda Rights
Statements that must be made by the police informing a suspect of his or het constitutional rights potected by the 5th Amendment
Selective Incorporation
a judicial doctrine whereby most but not all of the protections found in the Bill of Rights are made applicable to the states via the 14th amendment
Exclusionary Rule
Mapp v. Ohio,judicially created rule that prohibits police from using illegally seizured evidence at trial
Establihment Clause
the first clause in the 1st amendment, prohibits the national government from establishing a national religion
Right to Privacy
the right to be left alone, a judicially created doctrine encompassing an individuals decision to use birth control or secure an abortion
Engle v. Vitale
court ruled that the recitation in public school classrooms of a brief nondenominational prayer drafted by the local school broad was unconstitutional; establishment clause
Lemon v. Kurtzman
court tried to carve out a three-part test of laws dealing with religious establishment issues; establishment clause
1. had a secular purpose
2. neither advanced nor inhibited religion
3. did not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion
Miranda v. Arizona
the Supreme courts response to these coercive efforts to obtain confessions that were not truly voluntary; Miranda Right
Gideon v. Wainright
criminal defendants were not entitled to lawyers in state courts; 6th amendment
Mapp v. Ohio
the Warren court ruled that "all evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the constitution, is inadmissible in a state court; 4th and 5th amendment
Furman v. Georgia
the supremem court effectively put an end to capital punishment, at least in the short run; 8th amendment
Roe v. Wade
the supreme court found that a womans right to an abortion was protected; right to privacy
14th Amendment
one of three Civil War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all U.S. citizens
15th Amendment
one of three Civil War Amendments; enfranchised newly freed male slaves
19th Amendment
guaranteed women the right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlaw segregation in public facilites and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
24th Amendment
eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age to 18
the formal vehicles which polices are made and affairs of state are conducted
the study of who gets what, when, and how- or how policy decisions are made
Political Socialization
the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values
a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through elected representatives
Social Contract Theory
the belief that people and free and equal by God-given right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influenced in the writing of the Declaration of Independence
Political Culture
a group of office holders, candidates, activists, and voters who identify with a group lable and seek to elect to public office individuals who run under that lable
a government rootes in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy
Political Ideology
the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
John Locke
english philospher, author of Second Treatise on Civil Govern, power in the people, influenced Thomas Jefferson and the DOC
Barron De Montesquieu
french philospher, author of Spirit of the Laws, influenced seperating government into 3 branchs
Declaration of Independence
document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain
Federalist Papers
a series of 85 political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties
a document establishing the structure, functions, and limitatons of a government
James Madison
Father of the Constitution Convention, organized the convention, convinced GW to preside over convention, kept journals of the meetings, Virginia Plan
Thomas Jefferson
delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. third President of the United States
William Paterson
proposed the New Jersey Plan
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists and wrote 51 of the Federalists Papers; first secretary of the treasury
Roger Sherman
proposed the great (Connecticut) compromise
George Washington
commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and President over the Convention
Necessary and Proper Clause
gives the Congress authority to pass all laws to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution, Article 1 Section 8
ex post facto Law
law passed after the fact
writ of habeas corpus
court order in which a judge requires authories to prove that a prisoner is being help lawfully and that allows the prisoner to be freed if the judge is notpersuaded by the governments case, a prisoner has the right to know what charges are being made aginst them
Privileges and Immunities Clause
citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of other state, Article IV
Enumerated Powers
17 specific powers granted to Congress including taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense, Article 1, section 5
Reserve (police) Powers
powers reserved to the states by the 10th admendment that lie at the foundation of a states' right to legislate for the public helth and welfare of ots citizens
Supremecy Clause
mandates that the national law is supreme to all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government, Article VI
Bill of Attainder
a law declaring an act illegally without a judicial trial
Full Faith and Credit Clause
ensures judicial decress and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state, Article IV
Implied Powers
powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. these powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers
Concurrent Powers
authority possessed by both state and national governmnets that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law
formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of the legislative body
Voting Rights Act 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement, allowed federal agents to monitor voting and register blacks
Constitution Outline
1 Congress
2 Executive
3 Judical
4 Federalism
5 Amendment Process
6 Supremacy - Law of the Land
1-10 Amendments are called the Bill of Rights
Articles of Confederation weaknesses...
1 although National Government could coin money, it has no resources to back up the value of its currency
2 had no provisions for a judicial system to handle the frowing number of economic conflicts and boundary disputes among the states
3 the lack of a strong central government
Prosess to Amend Constitution
1 Requires 3/5 state votes
2 Pass congress bt 2/3 votes in both house and senate
or 3 Congress can call for a constitution Convention
Part of the DOC
1 Introduction
2 Political Justification
3 Facts agains the king (27 total)
4 & 5 Attempt to Compromise
6 Conclusion
Major events at the COnstitutional Convention
1 revise AOC
2 James Madison, organized convention, convinced GW to preside over Convention
3 Virginia Plan-bicameral leg. and executive and judicary
4 New Jersey Plan- small states, equal representation
5 Connecticut Compremise
McCulloch v. Maryland
the supreme court upheld the power of the nationl government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution supremacy clause.
Approve Foreign Treaties vote
2/3 votes of the Senate
Impeachment vote
House majority and 2/3 Senate
Override veto vote
2/3 vote in both House and Senate
Approve presidential appointee vote
majority of Senate
Approve Amendment to US Constitution
2/3 vote in both house and senate
Federal Judicial Selection Process
1 nominated by President and approved by Senate