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Political Ideology

the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals

Political Culture

an overall set of values widely shared within a society

Political Socialization

The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.

Agents of Political Socialization

Family, school and press, mass media, religious beliefs, race and ethnicity, gender, age, religion, historic events, opinion leaders

Political Party

a group of office holders, candidates, activist, and voters who identify with a group label and seek to elect to public office individuals who run under that label

Party Identification

a sense of affiliation that a person has with a particular political party

Temporary party organization

party organization that exists for a limited time and includes several levels of conventions

Permenant party organization

party organization that operates throughout the year, performing the party's functions

Special interest groups

an organization of people with some common interest who try to influence government decisions


direct group involvement in the electoral process
1 endorse/recruit people
2 rate candidates or office holders
3 publish records of candidates
4 provide speaking opportunities and mailing list
5 getting out votes
6 political action commitees

Political Action commitee

federally mandated, offically registered fundraising commitee that represents intrest groups in the political process

Primary Election

Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election

General Election

Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices


the activities of a group that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the groups position


A term James Madison used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.

Third Parties arise??

1 ideology
2 single issues
3 form a strong personality

Conventional Political Participation

political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion; writng letters to government officals, making political contributions, and voting

unconventional Political Participation

political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing

Political Alienation

general feelings of estrangement from the political system; the belief that voting is useless and that individuals cannot influence political events

Political Efficacy

The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference

Qualification to vote

Over 18, US citizen, Living in Precinct

Candidate Centered Campaigns

campaigns in which candidates set up campaigns organizations, raise money, and campaign independently of other candidates in their party

Party Centered Campaigns

Election campaigns and other political processes in which political parties, not individual candidates, hold most of the initiative and influence.

Historic Third Parties..

Liberty, free soil, American Independent, Reform, Dixie


the roportion of the voting-age public that votes

Retrospective Judgment

a voters evaluation of the performance of the party in power

Prospective judgment

A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected

Closed Primary

a primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote

Open Primary

a primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote

Crossover voting

participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated


an organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party.

Runoff Primary

a second primary election between the two condidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first election


an election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote


an election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the states voters for approval


an election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote

Nomination Campaign

that part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election


the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar

General Election Campaign

that part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election


voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election

Voter Canvass

the process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone

Get out the vote

GOTV, a push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls

Campaign Manager

the individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign

Finance Chair

a professional who coordinates the fund-raising efforts for the campaign


a professional who takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns

Direct Mailer

A professional who supervises a political campaign's direct mail fund-raising strategies

Communication Director

developes the overall media strategy for the candidate, blending free press coverage with paid tv radio and mail media

Press Secretary

the individual charged with interacting and communicating with journalists on a daily basis

Internet team

the campaign staff that makes use of web-based resources to communicate with voters, raise funds, organize volunteers, and plan campaign events

Electoral College

representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president


member of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state

Midterm Election

Elections held midway between presidential elections.

Paid media

political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign

Free Media

Coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media

New Media

new technologies, such as the internet, that blur the line between paid and free media sources

Positive Ad

advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent

Negative Ad

advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's platform or character

Contrast Ad

ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias toward the sponsor.

Spot Ad

television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in sixty-, thirty-, or ten-second duration

Inoculation Ad

advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched

Public Funds

donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates

Matching Funds

donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises

Soft Money

the virtually unregulated money funneled by individuals and political commitees through state and local parties

527 Political Commitees

nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters

501 Commitees

nonprofit and tax-exempt groups that can educates voters about issues and are not required to release the names of their contributors

Article 1, Section 1

defines Congress which is made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate

Article 1, Section 2

defines House of Representatives which is consist of three requirements: 25 years old, citizen for 9 years, resident of the state you represent

Article 1, Section 3

defines the Senate which consist of three requirements: 30 years old, citizen for 9 years, resident of the state you represent

Article 1, Section 8

powers granted to the Congress, enumerated and implied powers

Article 1, Section 9

Sets prohibition(limits) for Congress

House of Representatives...

- 435 members
- 2 year term


- 100 members
- 6 year term


the drawing of legislative boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan or factional advantage


formal way of halting action on a bill by means of long speeches or unlimited debate in the senate

Poket Veto

if Congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill passed without president signature

How a Bill is Passed

-intro. bill
-standing commitee
-rules commitee
-house-senate floor
-debate (set time limit for HOR) (no time limit for Senate)
- vote by majority
-Conference commitee
-approve by President
-sign, veto, nothing

Article 2, Section 1

defines President
1 executive power defined Pres. and VP for 4 years
2 Electoral College established
3 Method of Selection
4 Qualification- natural born citizen, 35 years old, 14 years resident of US
5 Succession
6 Compensation
7 Oath in Office

Article 2, Sections 2 and 3

Powers and responsibilites of Presidental office

Article 2, Section 4

impeachment and removal for treason, bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors

22nd Amendment

prevents president from serving more the two terms or ten years if he came to office via the death or impeachment of his predecessor

25th Amendment

establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of President and VP as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disabilities of a pres.

12th Amendment

added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots

17th Amendment

established the direct election of senators

US v. Nixon

ruling on power of the pres. finding that there is no absolute constitutional executive priviledge to allow a pres. to refuse to comply with a court order to produce info. needed in a trial

War Powers Act

the pres. is limited in the deployment of troops to a 60 day period of peacetime

Marbury v. Madison

supreme court first asserted the power of judicial review in finding that the congressional statute extending the courts original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

Judicial Review

power of the courts to review acts of other branches of governments and the states


authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in any particular case

Senatorial Courtsey

process by which Pres., when selecting district court judges, defer to senators of their own party who represent tha state where the vacancy occurs; or governor selecting an appointee

Article 3, Section 1

1 courts established
2 term
3 compensation

Article 3, Section 2

Jurisdiction established

Article 3, Section 3

Treason defined

1st Amendemnt

Gitlow v. New York and Griswold v. Connecticut
1. Freedom of Religion
2. Freedom of Speech
3. Freedom of Press
4. Freedom of Assembly
5. Petition Government

4th Amendment

Mapp v. Ohio
Protection from Unreasonable Search and Seizures

5th Amendment

Miranda v. Arizona
Protect from government intrusions of life, liberity and property
1. Grand Jury Indictment
2. Double-Jepaordy Life and Limb
3. Self-Incrimination
4. Due Process of Law
5. Eminent Domain

6th Amendment

Gideon v. Wainwright
Right to whom is accused of criminal offense
1. Speedy and Public Trial
2. Trial by impartial Jury
3. Informed of Accusation
4. Cross Examination
5. Complusery Process
6. Right to Counsel

8th Amendment

1. Excessive Bails and Fines
2. Cruel and Unusual Punishment

10th Amendment

New York v. U.S.
Powers Reserved to States

Civil Rights

the government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discrminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on catagories such as race, sex, national origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation

Civil Liberties

the personal gaurantees and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation

Miranda Rights

Statements that must be made by the police informing a suspect of his or het constitutional rights potected by the 5th Amendment

Selective Incorporation

a judicial doctrine whereby most but not all of the protections found in the Bill of Rights are made applicable to the states via the 14th amendment

Exclusionary Rule

Mapp v. Ohio,judicially created rule that prohibits police from using illegally seizured evidence at trial

Establihment Clause

the first clause in the 1st amendment, prohibits the national government from establishing a national religion

Right to Privacy

the right to be left alone, a judicially created doctrine encompassing an individuals decision to use birth control or secure an abortion

Engle v. Vitale

court ruled that the recitation in public school classrooms of a brief nondenominational prayer drafted by the local school broad was unconstitutional; establishment clause

Lemon v. Kurtzman

court tried to carve out a three-part test of laws dealing with religious establishment issues; establishment clause
1. had a secular purpose
2. neither advanced nor inhibited religion
3. did not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion

Miranda v. Arizona

the Supreme courts response to these coercive efforts to obtain confessions that were not truly voluntary; Miranda Right

Gideon v. Wainright

criminal defendants were not entitled to lawyers in state courts; 6th amendment

Mapp v. Ohio

the Warren court ruled that "all evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the constitution, is inadmissible in a state court; 4th and 5th amendment

Furman v. Georgia

the supremem court effectively put an end to capital punishment, at least in the short run; 8th amendment

Roe v. Wade

the supreme court found that a womans right to an abortion was protected; right to privacy

14th Amendment

one of three Civil War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all U.S. citizens

15th Amendment

one of three Civil War Amendments; enfranchised newly freed male slaves

19th Amendment

guaranteed women the right to vote

Civil Rights Act of 1964

outlaw segregation in public facilites and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

24th Amendment

eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement

26th Amendment

lowered the voting age to 18


the formal vehicles which polices are made and affairs of state are conducted


the study of who gets what, when, and how- or how policy decisions are made

Political Socialization

the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values


a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through elected representatives

Social Contract Theory

the belief that people and free and equal by God-given right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influenced in the writing of the Declaration of Independence

Political Culture

a group of office holders, candidates, activists, and voters who identify with a group lable and seek to elect to public office individuals who run under that lable


a government rootes in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy

Political Ideology

the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals

John Locke

english philospher, author of Second Treatise on Civil Govern, power in the people, influenced Thomas Jefferson and the DOC

Barron De Montesquieu

french philospher, author of Spirit of the Laws, influenced seperating government into 3 branchs

Declaration of Independence

document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties


a document establishing the structure, functions, and limitatons of a government

James Madison

Father of the Constitution Convention, organized the convention, convinced GW to preside over convention, kept journals of the meetings, Virginia Plan

Thomas Jefferson

delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. third President of the United States

William Paterson

proposed the New Jersey Plan

Alexander Hamilton

Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists and wrote 51 of the Federalists Papers; first secretary of the treasury

Roger Sherman

proposed the great (Connecticut) compromise

George Washington

commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and President over the Convention

Necessary and Proper Clause

gives the Congress authority to pass all laws to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution, Article 1 Section 8

ex post facto Law

law passed after the fact

writ of habeas corpus

court order in which a judge requires authories to prove that a prisoner is being help lawfully and that allows the prisoner to be freed if the judge is notpersuaded by the governments case, a prisoner has the right to know what charges are being made aginst them

Privileges and Immunities Clause

citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of other state, Article IV

Enumerated Powers

17 specific powers granted to Congress including taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense, Article 1, section 5

Reserve (police) Powers

powers reserved to the states by the 10th admendment that lie at the foundation of a states' right to legislate for the public helth and welfare of ots citizens

Supremecy Clause

mandates that the national law is supreme to all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government, Article VI

Bill of Attainder

a law declaring an act illegally without a judicial trial

Full Faith and Credit Clause

ensures judicial decress and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state, Article IV

Implied Powers

powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. these powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers

Concurrent Powers

authority possessed by both state and national governmnets that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law


formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of the legislative body

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