Introduction to Interpreting Midterm

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Terms in this set (...)

When was the first RID meeting? Where did it take place?
1964;
Muncie, Indiana
Ball State Teachers College
First interpreter nationally certified in Alabama? When?
Mary Lou Bingham
1973
PL 94-142 - when and what
1975;
Education for All Handicapped Children's Act
Deaf students mainstreamed in public schools
Section 504 Rehabilitation Act; when and what
1978
Any institution receiving federal funds must be accessible to all disabled persons
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act
1990
Provide access to interpreting services
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1993
Deaf students allowed to attend schools that provide the least restrictive environment
Why use models? List 4 reasons
• Helps us talk to one another
• Helps us separate ourselves from our work
• Helps us analyze our work
• Gives us a picture of how our minds work
Socio-cultural Model
historical evolution of our profession
5 types of socio-cultural models
Helper model
Machine Model
Communication Facilitator
Ally Model
Bi-lingual/bi-cultural model
Cognitive Processing Models
describes what happens in our brains during the interpreting process
-Colonomos
-Cokely
-Gile Effort Model
- Russel Meaning based model
Cog Proc - Colonomos
CRP

Step 1: Concentrate
Understand

Step 2: Represent
Conceptualize
strip the source message of language
- experience the message, not the language
-retain the essence feelings, fragrances, images, etc.

Step 3: Plan
Organize
organize message concepts into the structure of the target language and culture
how best is the message conveyed via the target language and culture
as needed, seek any required additional information or clarification
Cokely
Source Language: Perceive (Message Reception) --> Recognize (Preliminary Processing) --> Chunk (Short-term memory retention) --------> UNDERSTAND (Semantic Intent Realized)--------------------------->
TARGET LANGUAGE: Analyze (Semantic Equivalent Determined) --> FORMULATE (Semantic Message Formulation) --> (pre-production monitor)
Produce (Message Production) (post-production monitor)
Gile Effort Model
SI= L + M + P + C

Source text
_________ | _____________
Resources------> ( Interpretation ) <------- Constraints
|
( Decision-Making)
___________________
|
TARGET TEXT
SI = L+ M + P + C
Simultaneous Interpreting = Listen + Memory + Production + Control
Russel Meaning Based Model
access contextual factors and monitor process ---> Analyze and Comprehend source language message ---> apply contextual and linguistic schemas in creation of effective message -----> Decide upon using Simultaneous or consecutive interpreting
Task Models
shows us how we should approach our work

-Gish
-Demand- control schema
-Weisman P's
Gish
starts with the big picture, leans heavily on prediction and visualization skills
Gish's goal to Detail Model
Goal
|
Theme
/ | \
Objective Objective Objective
/ / | | | |
Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit
/ \ | \ / \ | \ | \ | \
DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD
Wesiman P's
Place- where the interpretation occurs
Participants- Who all are involved
Perspectives- the psychological view of each person (mindset)
Point- REASON for interaction or goal of interaction
Purpose - the UNDERLYING reason for being there- why each person is there
Personal- your personal perspective and view of the interpretation, the influence personally
Register
the level of formality in a spoken or signed message. The psychological distance between participants
List and define the 5 categories of register
Frozen- "set in stone"; message is unchanging
Formal- more direct with little interaction from audience
Consultative- expert and person; little turn-taking
Casual- simple conversation between 2 or more people; frequent turn-taking, and slang language is used
Intimate- a lot of facial expression, few words are spoken
Define CONTEXT
A set of features that influence meaning
Culture
a way of life that is composed of a variety beliefs, morals, and behaviors as well as physical and social interactions among people, which change from various locations throughout the world
Give 3 reasons interpreters need to understand the impact of culture on communication
- Interpreters need to understand and be conscious of one's own culture and identity
- Interpreters must also understand different cultural perspectives and accept those different in a non-judgmental way
-In addition, interpreters must be able to point out and identify cross-cultural dynamics that influence interactions and that could possibly cause cultural misunderstandings
Culture
-includes values, rules of behavior and traditions
-provides a frame or schema for living within a specified group of people
Cultures influences such things as...
-the distance one sits/stands while communicating
-norms for eye contact
-expectations regarding conflict resolution
-what holidays will be celebrated
Audism refers to..
-systematic and fairly invisible "privilege" based on one's ability to hear and speak
-stereotyping people based on their ability or inability to hear and speak
-Preferential treatment given to hearing individuals
Oppression can be defined as...
-discrimination made on the basis of age, gender, ability to hear, etc...
-Unjust or excessive exercise of power or position which results in the marginalization of a group of people
1988
Deaf President Now at Gallaudet
The DPN revolution at Gallaudet in 1988...
-was felt by Deaf communities around the world
-Boosted Deaf pride and strides toward greater equality and inclusion for members of the Deaf community
Disfranchisement-
-refers to the systematic exclusion of individuals from identified minority groups based on negative stigma held by members of the "privileged" majority group
-is marked by "power over" rather than "power with" minority groups on the part of individuals in the majority group
-results in chronic unemployment and under-employment, lack of access to quality education and other forms of discriminiation
An interpreter can oppress d/Deaf individuals by...
-imposing her/his personal beliefs and values on a client
-always deferring to a hearing client during an interpreted event
-assuming the Deaf cultural experience is the same as the hearing cultural experience
Myth of the misguided child-
a belief by members of a majority group that individuals in the minority group don't know what is best for them and thus require "guidance" by the majority group. This is a MYTH-- Deaf individuals are well capable of making h/her own decisions and living a productive life just as anyone else
Rochester method
all words are fingerspelled.. with the exception of and
SEE1
Seeing Essential English- is a code for english words where each syllable is given a separate manual movement
SEE2
Signing Exact English- is a combination of SEE1, invented initialized signs, and some ASL signs
SE
Signed English- combines grammatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs
CASE
Conceptually Accurate Signed English- combines English grammatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs
sim-com
Simultaneous communication- the use of sign supported speech.
A-language
one's native language; is most fluent and grew up with
B-language
a person's second language that s/he acquires after spending time with people that speak the language; or living in a country where that language is spoken. A person can usually carry on a conversation with this language
C-language
is a person's third language. the person understands what is being said, but has a hard time responding to what is being expressed the individual has a heavy accent with many grammatical errors and structure; this language is most likely recently acquired
Transliteration
conveying information between spoken English to signed English
Source Language
The language in which the original message is EXPRESSED in
Target Language
the language in which the original message is INTERPRETED in
AAD
Alabama Association of the Deaf
ADA
The Americans with Disabilities Act
ADRS
Alabama Department of Rehabilitation Services
AIDB
Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind
(Talladega, Alabama)
AIDB
HRC
Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind
Huntsville Regional Center
ALRID
Alabama Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
ARC
Alabama Relay Center
ASD
Alabama School for the Deaf (Talladega, Alabama)
COSDA
Council of Organizations Serving Deaf Alabamians
GU
Gallaudet University - the world's only Deaf university in Washington D.C.
SERID
Southeast Region Institute on Deafness
RID
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
PINRA
Participant Initiated Non-RID Activities
ACET
Associate Continuing Education Tracking
NIC
National Interpreter Certification
EIPA
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment
Who is the current RID president?
Brenda Walker Prudhom
What is the name of the scholarship available to ITP students through RID?
Elizabeth Benson Scholarship
To maintain certification, how many CEU's does an interpreter need?
8.0 every 4 years
Section 504 Rehabilitation Act
Reasonable Accommodations 1973
Rehabilitation Amendments of 1978
authorized interpreting as a profession for the first time
Sign Language Continuum
ASL
\ CONTACT SIGN
ASL
1- CASE
MCE 2-9 (More like English)
2. Signed English
3. SEE1
4. SEE2
5. LOVE (Lingustics of Visual English)
6. Rochester Method
7. Cued Speech
8. Written English
9. Spoken English
//// ENGLISH
Schema
unwritten rules that we follow in various situations- it dictates your behavior
Privilege
A socially constructed, unearned benefit for a certain group of people
Consecutive interpreting
Process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while interpreter transmits the info
Simultaneous Interpreting
Process of interpreting into the target language/code at the same time the source language is being delivered