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Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
T OR F: The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.
T OR F: Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.
T OR F: Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.
T OR F: A condition of leukocytosis indicates over 11,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in the blood.
T OR F: Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.
LOW BLOOD VISCOSITY
increased blood volume
high blood pressure
Place the following in correct developmental sequence:
4. late erythroblast
2, 4, 3, 1
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.
Sickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by ________.
travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise
Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.
impaired formation of all formed elements
INCREASE OF LEUKOCYTES AS A RESULT OF ERYTHROCYTE LOSS
Destruction of the hematopoietic components of red marrow leads to a condition called ________.
________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected.
Which of the following is not a formed element of the blood?
Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.
It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.
Which of the following does not stimulate erythrocyte production?
A drop in normal blood oxygen levels
Which of the following is correctly matched?
Pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?
A man of Mediterranean ancestry goes to his doctor with the following symptoms: he is very tired all of the time, and he has difficulty catching his breath after even mild exercise. His doctor orders the following tests: CBC, hematocrit, and differential WBC count. The tests show immature erythrocytes, fragile erythrocytes, and less than 2 million RBCs per cubic millimeter. What would be a tentative diagnosis and suggested treatment?
The diagnosis is thalassemia. The treatment is blood transfusion.
A 68-year-old male is admitted to the hospital for emphysema. He is hypoxic and his lab tests reveal low oxygen levels. His hematocrit is 65%. The physician has told him that he has a type of polycythemia in which he has an increased number of erythrocytes circulating in his bloodstream. The patient tells the nurse that he does not understand what that means. How would the nurse explain this in terms the patient could understand?
You have decreased oxygen levels in your blood, and your body has responded by producing more RBCs, causing a type of polycythemia, the term for excessive RBC production.
An elderly patient tells the nurse that she has been very tired lately and has difficulty walking to her mailbox without getting very short of breath. The nurse notes that her mucous membranes are pale. The patient states that since her husband died three months ago, she has not been eating well. How could you explain the patient's clinical manifestations?
They are attributed to the reduction in the amount of oxygen available to tissues.
A 17-year-old black male is admitted to the hospital in sickle-cell crisis. What is a top priority for patients in sickle-cell crisis?
Pain management. The sickled cells tend to pile up in capillaries and smaller blood vessels, making the blood more viscous. Normal circulation is impaired, causing swelling and severe pain.
A 52-year-old woman was diagnosed with leukemia, and has been receiving chemotherapy as an outpatient. She tells the RN that she hasn't been feeling well. The patient's skin is warm to the touch and she has a low-grade fever of 100.2Â°F. The neutrophil blood count is less than 1000/Âµl. Why is the nurse concerned about this patient?
Neutropenia is a concern because of the neutrophil's role in phagocytosis of bacteria. A low-grade fever suggests that the patient has an infection, and in someone who has neutropenia an infection is a major concern for survival.
Which of the following is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting?
Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?
platelet plug formation
Thromboembolic disorders ________.
include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system
Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?
excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Which sequence is correct for the following events?
1. fibrinogen → fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin → thrombin
3, 4, 1, 2
All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.
vitamin K deficiency
Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting cascades?
one is faster than the other
Which of the following would not lead to a bleeding disorder?
EXCESS CALCIUM IN THE DIET
Impaired liver function
Vitamin K deficiency
Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.
Which of the following is NOT a part of hemostasis?
platelet plug formation
T OR F: A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood.
Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?
Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal.
Unique to the ABO blood group is the presence in the plasma of preformed antibodies.
BLOOD TYPING FOR THE KELL, LEWIS, AND DUFFY FACTORS IS ALWAYS DONE BEFORE A BLOOD TRANSFUSION.
When a transfusion reaction occurs, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the transfused blood cells is disrupted and the clumping of RBCs in small vessels hinders blood flow to tissues beyond those points.
An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.
Blood volume restorers include all of the following except ________.
Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?
IF THE FATHER IS Rh-
if the child is Rh+
if the father is Rh+
if the child is type O positive
Which of the following does not serve as a site for blood cell production in the developing fetus?
Fetal yolk sac
Red bone marrow
Why would there be cause for concern if a young pregnant mother is Rh-, her husband is Rh+, and this is their second child?
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.
A total WBC count and a differential WBC count have been ordered for Mrs. Johnson. What information is obtained from the differential count that the total count does not provide?
The differential count determines the relative proportion of individual leukocyte types. The total WBC count indicates an increase or decrease in number of WBCs.
What three blood tests might be ordered for a patient if anemia is suspected?
Hematocrit, complete blood count, and microscopic study of erythrocytes
A patient complains of no energy, a chronic sore throat, a low-grade fever, and is tired and achy. His doctor notes an enlarged spleen upon examination. What diagnosis would you expect, and what definitive test would you request?
The diagnosis is infectious mononucleosis. The test would be a differential white blood cell count to look for elevated numbers of monocytes and atypical lymphocytes.
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.
Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.
Normally, the amount of plasma in whole blood is ________ than the amount of formed elements; plasma makes up approximately ________ percent of whole blood.
This component of blood plasma includes molecules that are important for body defense, osmotic balance, and lipid transport.
A normal red blood cell count is ________; of the sexes, ________ generally have greater numbers.
4 to 6 million/mm2 of blood; men
These white blood cells kill parasitic worms and play a complex role in allergic responses and asthma.
From the choices listed here, the most accurate way to assess the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is probably to measure the ________.
This cell is the largest white blood cell. It lacks cytoplasmic granules and has a kidney-shaped nucleus.
A person who has symptoms of paleness and chronic fatigue is suspected of having anemia. To investigate this suspicion further, it would be most helpful to measure ________.
A blood test reveals a large increase in the number of RBCs. One possible explanation for this may be ________.
A patient reports to the doctor that she bruises very easily, and when she cuts herself, she has a hard time stopping the bleeding. What test might a health care provider order to help diagnose this problem?
A person with type AB blood receives a transfusion of type O blood. Will there be a transfusion reaction? Why or why not?
no: the recipient has no antibodies to antigens A and B, and therefore can receive blood from a type O donor
Which of the following compromises a logical sequence of vessels as blood exits the heart?
Arteries, capillaries, veins
After centrifuging, of the listed blood components, which contains the components of immune function?
Buffy coat (white blood cells)
The major function of the most common plasma protein, albumin is _________.
maintenance of plasma osmotic pressure and buffering changes in plasma pH
Red blood cells are efficient oxygen transport cells. Of the following characteristics, which is the major contributer to the significan oxygen-carrying capacity of a red blood cell?
Red blood cells are biconcave discs
A patient with low iron levels would experience which of the following symptoms?
an increase in fatigue
Predict the outcome of an overdose of the hormone erythropoietin.
The blood viscosity increases to levels that may induce heart attacks or strokes.
What response would you expect after traveling to high altitude for two weeks?
THe kidneys would secrete elevated amounts of erythropoietin.
If a patient has pernicious anemia, the inability of the body to absorb vitamin B12, the patient ______.
would have a decreased number of red blood cells
which of the following statements is true regarding the mechanism controlling movement of white blood cells into damaged areas?
White blood cells exit the capillary and move through the tissue spaces with cytoplasmic extensions by following a trail of chemicals produced by other white blood cells.
Leukemia is the general descriptor for which of the following disorders?
Overproduction of abnormal leuocytes
An oral heparin medication might be prescribed for a patient who:
is at risk for embolism (clots that spontaneously form and wedge in blood vessels).
Why doesn't a clot fill the entire vasculature system once it has started forming?
Rapid blood flow washes away and dilutes activated clotting factors; Thrombin is inactivated by antithrombin 3 if it enters the general circulation.
Activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation requires exposure of the blood to _____.
tissue factor 3
WHy don't platelets form plugs in undamaged vessels?
Only contact of platelets with exposed collagen fibers and von Willebrand factor causes them to be sticky and form plugs.
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