The last stage in reef formation when a landmass becomes completely submerged, but the coral reef continues to grow.
The second stage in reef formation. They can be linear or circular and are separated from the landmass by a well-developed lagoon.
An idea by Alfred Wegener that the continents were slowly drifting across the globe. It was a precursor to Plate Tectonics.
Continental Transform Fault
A transform fault (movement of one plate past another) that cuts across a continent.
The mechanism thought to be behind sea floor spreading. It's a circular-moving loop of matter.
A lithospheric plate boundary where two plates collide producing island arc systems, continental volcanic arcs, or folded mountain ranges.
A marine ridge or reef consisting of coral and other organic material consolidated into limestone that goes through 3 stages of develoment.
The innermost part of the Earth with a solid interior of mostly iron and nickel and a liquid exterior of the same material.
A naturalist who, among other things, hypothesized about coral development during his voyage on the HMS Beagle.
A plate boundary where two plates are moving apart, such as along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge where sea floor spreading is occurring. Rift valleys are common.
East Pacific Rise
This is a gently sloping and fast-spreading part of the mid-ocean ridge between the Nazca and Pacific Plates with a small central rift valley.
This is the first stage in reef development. They initially develop along the margin of a landmass where conditions are just right and are often associated with volcanoes.
A hypothetical ancient protocontinent made up of Africa, Antarctica, Australia, India, and South America.
Hawaiian Islands-Emperor Seamount Chain
An island chain oriented in a NW direction in the Pacific Plate made up of over 100 volcanoes.
A geologist who published the idea of sea floor spreading with convection cells as the driving mechanism.
A relatively stationary surface expression of a persistent column of molten mantle rising to the surface.
Adjustment of crustal material due to the reaching equilibrium in which the rigid crustal units float on the underlying mantle.
The upward movement of crustal material due to reaching equilibrium in which the rigid crustal units float on the underlying mantle.
Distortion of the regular pattern of Earth's magnetic field, resulting from the various magnetic properties of local concentrations of minerals in Earth's crust.
The dip of magnetite particles in rock units of Earth's crust relative to sea level. It is approximately equivalent to the latitude at which the rock formed.
The region surrounding a magnet or celestial object that generates magnetism that is influenced by that magnetism.
Columns of molten material that arise from deep within the mantle and erupt onto Earth's surface at relatively fixed locations called hot spots.
A slow-spreading divergent plate boundary running north-south and bisecting the Atlantic Ocean.
A linear chain of islands and/or seamounts that are progressively older in one direction. It is created by passage of a tectonic plate over a hotspot.
A long linear depression in the ocean floor associated with subduction on one oceanic tectonic plate beneath another oceanic plate or continental plate.
Any section of the narrow, largely continuous range of submarine mountains that extends into all the major oceans and at which new oceanic lithosphere is created by the rise of magma from the earth's interior.
Oceanic Transform Fault
Faults on the ocean floor that neither create nor destroy lithosphere, whose relative motion is horizontal . They form a series of short zigzags accommodating seafloor spreading.
The outer most section of Earth's interior that is composed of thick liquid iron and nickel.
The theory that the lithosphere of the earth is divided into a small number of plates which float on and travel independently over the mantle and much of the earth's seismic activity occurs at the boundaries of these plates.
Polar Wandering Curve
A curve that shows apparent change in the location of Earth's poles over time.
Intrinsic polar separation, alignment, or orientation, especially of a physical property like magnetic or electrical ones.
San Andreas Fault
A transform fault that cuts across California from the northern end of the Gulf of California to Point Arena north of San Francisco.
Sea Floor Spreading
A process producing the lithosphere when convective upwelling of magma along the oceanic ridges moves the ocean floor away from the ridge axes.
A process by which one lithospheric plate descends beneath another. The surface expression of such a process may be an island arc-trench system or a folded mountain range.
An arc-shaped row of active volcanoes directly above a subduction zone. Can occur as a row of islands (island arc) or mountains on land (continental arc).
A German meteorologist and geophysicist who was the first to advance the idea of mobile continents in 1912 (Continental Drift).