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Earth Science Brain Honey Final Study

Earth Science 2 Brain Honey
STUDY
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Core
central region where nuclear reactions consume hydrogen to form helium.
Radiative Zone
energy generated in the core is carried by light (photons) that bounces from particle to particle through this zone.
Sunspots
dark areas on the surface of the Sun. Temperatures here drop to about 3700 K (compared to 5700 K for the surrounding photosphere).
Photosphere
the visible surface of the Sun that we are most familiar with.
Chromosphere
an irregular layer above the photosphere where the temperature rises from 6000° C to about 20,000° C.
Corona
the Sun's outer atmosphere. It displays a variety of features including streamers, plumes, and loops and is visible during total eclipses of the Sun as a pearly white crown surrounding the Sun.
Flares
tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT.
Prominence
a dense cloud of material suspended above the surface of the Sun by loops of magnetic field.
According to the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram, what is the luminosity of the Sun?

1
2
3
4
1
What is the Sun's absolute magnitude?

+1
-4.83
+4.83
-1
+4.83
Main sequence stars are those that have fairly uniform composition and are fueled by the fusion of ___________ to form energy, given off as light and __________.

helium, hydrogen
hydrogen, helium
oxygen, hydrogen
oxygen, carbon monoxide
hydrogen, helium
What is the main factor that influences how long a star burns?

The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans.
The mass of the star. Larger stars have longer lifespans.
How close the star is to other stars.
How close the star is to a black hole.
The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans.
About how fast are solar winds travelling when they pass Earth?

100 mph
1,000 mph
1,000,000 mph
1 mph
1,000,000 mph
Which of the following is NOT found in the Milky Way galaxy's galactic halo?

a few lone stars
dark matter
some star clusters
the Sun
the Sun
Which of the following is the correct order of the components of the Milky Way galaxy, from outermost to innermost?

thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, galactic halo, black hole
thin disk, extreme disk, thick disk, galactic halo, black hole
galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole
extreme disk, thick disk, thin disk, galactic halo, black hole
galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole
In what part of the Milky Way is our solar system located?

thick disk
thin disk
extreme disk
galactic halo
thin disk
What evidence do scientists have that lead them to believe there is a black hole at the center of the Milky Way?

They have directly measured the gravity of the black hole.
They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.
They have observed comets and asteroids disappearing into the area.
They have sent a probe into the area and it did not return.
They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.
About how much of the mass of the Milky Way has yet to be discovered by scientists?

95%
70%
20%
5%
95%
What galaxy is rushing towards the Milky Way from 2.5 million light years away and will eventually merge with it?

Sagittarius dwarf
Small Magellanic cloud
Nostromo
Andromeda
Andromeda
Earth is located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way.

True
False
True
The Milky Way's central bulge is located in the middle of the galaxy and is mainly a birth place for new stars.

True
False
False
Red stars are old, cool stars.

True
False
True
The spiral arms of the Milky Way contain mostly blue stars, gas and dust.

True
False
True
Explain why we see comets, like Haley's comet, only periodically, usually with many years in between sightings. In your explanation discuss the orbit of the comet.
Comets orbit the sun like planets. Comets have what is called an exaggerated elliptical orbit, a very long oval shape. We see the comet only when it is in the part of its orbit nearest the sun. The rest of the time it is out in the outer reaches of the solar system.
Comets have tails throughout their entire orbit around the sun.
False

Tails begin to appear as the comet nears the sun. As the energy from the sun heats up the comet it begins to "melt" and the melted gases and/or dust particles become the tail. As the comet leaves the part of the orbit where the sun's energy affects it, farther away from the sun, the tail will disappear.
The closer two objects are the greater the force of gravity between them
True

In space, we know that the distance between two objects is crucial to the amount of gravitational pull one object has on another. The closer the two objects the greater the amount of gravity
An object the size of the Earth has a gravitational pull. An object the size of Jupiter has a gravitational pull. Which has a greater gravitational pull and why?
Jupiter, because its mass is greater than the mass of Earth. Explanation: Gravity is directly related to the amount of mass present in an object. The greater the mass, the greater the force of gravity exerted by that object. Since Jupiter has more mass, its gravitational pull is greater.
We live in the ___________ galaxy.
Andromeda
Magellanic Cloud
Spider
Milky Way
Milky Way
The Milky Way is classified as which type of galaxy?
Spiral
Elliptical
Irregular
Nebulae
Spiral
Which of the following would best describe the characteristics of our star, the Sun?
Hot blue giant
Average yellow main sequence star
Expanding red giant
White dwarf
Average yellow main sequence star
What two characteristics are used to classify stars?`
luminosity (brightness) and color (temperature)
sunspots
Strong magnetic regions on the surface which appear dark
chromosphere
An irregular layer outside the photosphere where the temperature rises to 20,000 degrees C and a red light is emitted
photosphere
The visible surface of the Sun
core
Where energy producing nuclear reactions take place
corona
The Sun's outer atmosphere visible only during an eclipse
All telescopes use wavelengths in the visible section of the electromagnetic spectrum to create "images" of space.
false
Optical telescopes are designed to collect and create images from
White or visible light
X-rays
Infrared radiation
Ultraviolet radiation
White or visible light
Telescopes that are placed above the atmosphere produce clearer images than those below the atmosphere.
True

The movement of air molecules in the atmosphere interferes with the quality of the images collected by some kinds of telescopes
Which type of telescope was instrumental in detecting the background noise that is believed to be the remnant of the initial big bang event?
Answer: Radio Telescope, Explanation: Radio telescopes are used to "listen" to the noise of space. They were used to discover a diffuse noise that was heard coming from all directions in space. This noise is called background noise and is believed to be the leftover sound from the Big Bang event.
Estimates vary, but the universe is estimated to be about
12 - 15 million years
4.5 billion years
12 - 15 billion years
200 million years
12-15 billion years
Distances in space cannot be judged based only upon the size of an object but must be calculated using the characteristics of light emitted by that object.`
True

An object that is farther away may appear the same size and just as bright as an object near by and therefore we cannot judge distances in space using size or brightness alone.
Quasars, gas clouds, galaxies, and ________________________ are some of the objects in distant space that we study using ground based telescopes and satellites.
Answers may vary: Black holes, stars, star systems,
A pixel, used in analysis of a satellite image, represents an area that is 900 x 900 meters.
False

The pixel actually represents a land area of 30 x 30 meters or 900 square meters.
When the electromagnetic radiation from a star or galaxy, especially those in the visible spectrum, are examined this is the science of
Astronomy
Cosmology
Spectroscopy
Electro-radiationology
Spectroscopy
Which is not explained by the Big Bang theory of the creation of the universe?
Expansion of the universe
Cosmic microwave background radiation
Abundance of helium deuterium and lithium
The origin of galaxies
The origin of galaxies

One of the main principles of the Big Bang theory is that matter is distributed fairly evenly across the universe. Galaxies are an anomaly because they are collections of large amounts of organized matter
In the new universe following the Big Bang, four forces became distinct shortly after the initial event. Which of the forces is responsible for the attraction between particles of matter, coalescing clouds of gases and dust into stars, planets, etc.?

Gravity
Electromagnetism
Strong nuclear forces
Weak nuclear forces
Gravity
There are three basic types of galaxies. Name them and give a brief description of them
1. Spiral, which is disk shaped central portion, with arms radiating from the central disk.
2. Elliptical, which is ball to oval shaped, no arms, globular central portion, old stars.
3. Irregular, which is no regular shape, may have formed from a collision of two galaxies.
Quasars are the most distant objects we have discovered out in space and therefore are the oldest.
True

The more distant an object, the earlier the matter that formed it came out of the blast of the Big Bang. Nearer objects came out of the blast more recently than more distant objects.
Describe a. What remote sensing is. b. What kinds of things it can be used to study.
Remote sensing is basically the use of any instrument that does not touch the object being studied, but when it comes to space exploration, we often talk of telescopes and instruments on satellites as remote sensing equipment. Usually it involves some kind of imaging.
The images can be used for many purposes, surveillance, environmental studies, estimating the amount of land burned in a fire or flooded, etc.
Prior to the late 1950s, the main use or function of rockets was for what?
Answer: instruments of war, instruments of warfare, military weapons, weapons

Explanation: Up until the 1950s rockets were mainly used and developed as weapons for the military. Following the launch of Sputnik they were used additionally for boosting payloads into space.
The launch of what Russian satellite in 1957 set off the space race?
Rasputin
Soyuez
Stalin
Sputnik
Sputnik
Which of the following would NOT be considered a satellite?
The Moon
Io (a moon of Jupiter's)
Earth
A galaxy
A galaxy because galaxies do not orbit around other objects.
Satellites in orbit around the earth are often used for military surveillance, communications, and environmental observations.
True
What tools used in space exploration do not usually orbit the Earth or another body, but are associated with the study of objects that are far away from earth, out in the solar system?
Probes

Explanation: Probes do not usually orbit the Earth or another body and are associated with the study of a body that is far away from the Earth.
Most of what we know about space and the objects in space comes from our study of _________________ and its properties.
light
The word which describes the action taking place in our universe when we look at the positions of objects, like galaxies, in relation to each other is?
Answer: Expansion Explanation: The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang and is still expanding. Because of this objects in the universe continue to get farther and farther apart.
There are two types of Body Waves, P or Primary waves and S or Secondary waves. Following an earthquake which travels fastest and reaches seismic stations first? Which of these waves travels through both solids and liquids and which can travel only through solids, not liquids?
P-waves travel at speeds faster than the S-waves and reach seismic stations before S-waves. P-waves can travel through both solid and liquid materials and therefore travel straight through the outer core which is liquid. S-waves travel only through solids and therefore cannot pass through the outer core, which is liquid.
The ____________ of the earth is broken into several major and minor moving pieces, which are called ______________.
The crust of the earth is broken into large, moving pieces called plates.
According to the scientific community of Alfred Wegener's day, what was the flaw in his theory of continental drift?
A fatal weakness in Wegener's theory was that it could not satisfactorily answer the most fundamental question raised by his critics: What kind of forces could be strong enough to move such large masses of solid rock over such great distances?

Explanation: The theory of continental drift would become the spark that ignited a new way of viewing the earth. But at the time Wegener introduced his theory, the scientific community firmly believed the continents and oceans to be permanent features on the earth's surface. Not surprisingly, his proposal was not well received, even though it seemed to agree with the scientific information available at the time.
Which of the following men were most instrumental in putting together the evidence for supporting the theory of plate tectonics?

Matthew Maury
Jaques Cousteau
Alfred Wegener
James Hutton
Alfred Wegener

In 1912 the idea of moving continents was seriously considered as a full-blown scientific theory -- called Continental Drift -- introduced in 2 articles published by a 32-year-old German meteorologist named Alfred Lothar Wegener. He contended that, around 200 million years ago, the supercontinent Pangaea began to split apart. Wegener's theory was based in part on what appeared to him to be the remarkable fit of the South American and African continents.

Wegener was also intrigued by the occurrences of unusual geologic structures and of plant and animal fossils found on the matching coastlines of South America and Africa, which are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean. He reasoned that it was physically impossible for most of these organisms to have swum or have been transported across the vast oceans. To him, the presence of identical fossil species along the coastal parts of Africa and South America was the most compelling evidence that the two continents were once joined.

In Wegener's mind, the drifting of continents after the break-up of Pangaea explained not only the matching fossil occurrences but also the evidence of dramatic climate changes on some continents.
What process is being described in the following?

Due to processes inside the earth, there are large convection cells set up in the mantle. As the asthenosphere, or lower mantle, flows, it carries along with it large plates of the crust, resulting in events such as mountain formation, earthquakes, volcanoes, and new crust being formed.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism
Plate Tectonics
What process is being described in the following?

The processes involved in shaping the earth that are occurring on the earth now, in the present, are the same as were occurring in the past and can be used to study and make speculation about the shaping of the earth in the past.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism
What process is being described in the following?

An early theory that proposed that the continents were perhaps once a large continent called Pangea and that continent split apart and the continents moved over the course of millions of years to their present locations.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism
Continental Drift
What process is being described in the following?

In places where plates are being pulled apart, magma seeps up through cracks in the crust and creates new sea floor.

Plate Tectonics
Sea Floor Spreading
Continental Drift
Uniformitarianism
Sea Floor Spreading
Explain what a hotspot is and how hotspot activity is different from other volcanic activity.
Hotspots do not occur at plate boundaries as does most other volcanic activity. Hotspots are areas where magma rises to the surface at a point in the interior of a plate. They remain in the same place and the plate moves over them resulting in a line of volcanoes.
List the 4 basic layers of the earth. Begin at the surface and work towards the center.
Answer: crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. Explanation:
1. The crust is the outermost layer.
2. The mantle lies just below the crust. The core, or the center of the earth, has two distinct parts,
3. the outer core and
4. the inner core.
We live on the mantle.
False

We live on the crust, the outer layer of the earth.
When considered together, the crust and the mantle are divided into two layers relative to their ability to move and their flexibility. Though considered a solid, the materials composing the lower mantle have the consistency of hot asphalt. This material flows and carries the upper mantle and crust along as it flows. This, flowing, lower mantle is called the

Hydrosphere
Asthenosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Which is thicker:

Continental crust
Oceanic crust
Continental

The thickest portions of crust are the continental portions. The thinnest portions are on the ocean floor.

Explanation: The continents are made of much lighter, less dense materials that ride over the oceanic crust. So, under the continents there is usually a portion of oceanic crust, making the continental areas the thickest portions, up to 25 miles thick (32km). The oceanic crust is not much more than 5 miles thick (8km) at it's thickest point.
Three of the 4 layers of the earth exist in the solid state; the fourth exists as a liquid. Which of the 4 layers is liquid?

Crust
Mantle
Outer core
Inner core
Outer Core

The outer core's materials are under great pressure and heat and exist as a liquid
The upper mantle and the crust are rigid and brittle and together are called the __________.

Hydrosphere
Asthenosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Lithosphere
The core of the earth is mainly composed of _______ and ___________
iron and nickel
Along transform boundaries, two plates slide horizontally passed each other. Along these boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault, crust is not created or destroyed and no particular landform is associated with the boundary. However, a very powerful event occurs as these plates move. What event is associated with transform plate boundary movement?
When the plates move they release seismic waves--an earthquake occurs.
At a convergent or subduction boundary, one plate, usually the oceanic plate, slides under another plate, usually a continental plate, as they come together. What land/ocean features are created by this type of plate collision?
Convergent or subduction boundaries produce island arcs, deep ocean trenches, and volcanoes on the continent.
At a divergent boundary, plates spread apart, magma rises and cools. This process is associated with the creation of what land/ocean floor feature?
Divergent boundaries are associated with the creation of new sea floor. At these divergent boundaries large mountain ranges are created--the global mid-ocean ridge is a result of the spreading of plates.
When two continental plates collide, this is called a collisional or plate boundary zone. The formation of what landforms is associated with this type of plate collision?
As two continental plates collide land is pushed up and mountains/mountain ranges are formed along these plate boundaries.
The longest chain of mountains on earth is called the

The Andes in Peru.
The Global mid-ocean ridge at the ocean bottom.
The Rockies in the western USA.
The Urals in Russia.
The global mid-ocean ridge is the longest mountain chain on the earth. It is a continuous chain of mountains found on the ocean floor, encircling the globe and over 5,000 miles long. It is formed from sea floor spreading. Plates are moving apart and volcanic activity forms the mountains.
Using an egg as a model of the earth, compare the layers of the egg to the layers of the earth. In this analogy, there will be only three layers. When you have finished your comparison of the parts of the egg with the layers of the earth, explain why using the egg as the model is not totally representative of the earth.
The egg is a good model of the earth's layers for the most part.
The shell would be analogous to the crust,
the egg white would be analogous to the mantle, and the yolk would represent the core, both outer and inner.
However, the core is not represented correctly by the egg's yolk which is all solid. Also, the outer core of the earth is liquid and is not represented in the egg at all.
Which type of seismic wave travels outward in all directions including downward, from the point where the earthquake occurs, the focus?

Body Waves
Surface Waves
BODY WAVES
There are two basic kinds of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel outward in all directions, including downward, from the quake's focus -- that is, the particular spot where the fault first began to rupture.
Which type of seismic wave travels parallel to the surface like ripples on the surface of a pond, and are restricted to the upper few hundred miles of crust?

Body Waves
Surface Waves
SURFACE WAVES

Surface waves, by contrast, are confined to the upper few hundred miles of the crust. They travel parallel to the surface, like ripples on the surface of a pond. They are also slower than body waves.
There are several major events associated with the moving of plates. For example: Tsunamis, which are large, seismic, ocean waves, can result when plates move suddenly. List three other events related to movement of the earth's plates.
volcanoes, earthquakes, and hotspots Explanation: All of these events are associated with plate movement. Tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquakes are associated with movement at the boundaries. Hotspots are events or phenomena that occur away from plate boundaries, often at the heart of the plates.
Along this type of fault, blocks of crust either push together or pull apart, with one block sliding either up or down a sloped fault plane.

Strike-slip Fault
Slip-dip Fault
Slip-dip Fault
Along this type of fault, the plates slide past each other like cars traveling opposite directions on a highway.

Strike-slip Fault
Slip-dip Fault`
Strike slip Fault
The type of boundary where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones
Transform
The type of boundary where new crust is created as the plates pull away from each other:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones
Divergent Boundaries
The type of boundary where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another:

Divergent Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Transform
Plate Boundary Zones
Convergent Boundaries
These volcanoes are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. Flow after flow pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents, building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat, domical shape, with a profile much like that of a warrior's shield.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes
Shield Volcanoes
These are typically steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of layers of lava flows, alternating with volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. The volcano is built up by the accumulation of material erupted through the central conduit and increases in size as lava, cinders, ash, etc., are added to its slopes.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes
Composite Volcanoes
These are formed by relatively small, bulbous masses of lava too viscous to flow any great distance; consequently, on extrusion, the lava piles over and around its vent. A dome grows largely by expansion from within.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes
Lava Domes
These are built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone. Most have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet or so above their surroundings.

Cinder Cones
Composite Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Lava Domes
Cinder Cones
An area that is fairly far away from plate boundaries, fault lines, and other tectonic activity would
Experience many earthquakes and few volcanoes.
Experience extremely few earthquakes and no volcanic activity.
Experience severe earthquakes.
Experience major volcanic activity.
Experience extremely few earthquakes and no volcanic activity

Because earthquakes and volcanic activity occur at plate boundaries as plates move past each other and near faults, Any region, distant from either of these features does not experience either.
Explain what karst geology is and how it forms.
Karst geology refers to the land features that are produced by erosion that is associated with chemical weathering of the limestone that makes the karst region. When water flows through the pores and the cracks of the limestone. Water is slightly acidic and can become more so when it flows through plant material that is decaying. This acidic water reacts with the calcium in the limestone and dissolves it creating larger holes which can, over much time, become caverns, sinkholes and springs.
List at least three land features that are commonly found in areas with karst geology
Caves/caverns, sinkholes, springs, disappearing streams, and underground drainage systems.

Explanation: All of these can be formed from the chemical weathering (dissolving) of limestone.
Most of the United States sits on which major tectonic plate?
North American
Why does the USGS monitor mineral production and distribution of mineral resource all over the world?
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) collects statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S. economy, national security, and protection of the environment.
If a city were located along a subduction zone, that is a plate boundary at which one plate is being pulled beneath the other, this city would
Most likely experience volcanoes, but not earthquakes.
Most likely experience earthquakes, but not volcanoes.
Be subject to explosive volcanoes and earthquakes.
None of these
Be subject to explosive volcanoes and earthquakes.

This city would be subject to both earthquakes and volcanoes - like California.
Soil is mainly composed of inorganic particles, but can contain organic material. What is meant by "organic material" and what would be examples of organic material that is found in soil?
Organic refers to "from life" or from a living thing. So, organic materials in soil would be things that are living or things that were part of or came from living things. For example: Bugs, bacteria, and funguses live in soil. They would count as organic material. OR there may be pieces of leaves, roots and other plant parts in soil... also organic material, because they came from living things.
Soils differ from each other or from place to place due to or because of the differing amounts of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter contained in them.
True
Erosion can be defined as the removal of soil from an exposed area. There are two main categories of erosion, geologic and accelerated:

a. Define each.
b. Describe the main difference between the two.
c. Give examples of each type.
Geologic erosion is erosion of naturally exposed soil.
Accelerated erosion is erosion of soil that has been exposed by the activities of man.

The main difference between the two is the influence of man. Geologic is not influenced by the activities of man, accelerated erosion is influenced by the activities of man. An example of geologic erosion would be the formation of a gully in a desert area after a heavy rain storm, or the formation of the Grand Canyon. An example of accelerated erosion would have been the Dust Bowl event in our country's history or the erosion of soil from a construction site from which all the vegetation has been removed.
Diamond and graphite are minerals that are composed exclusively of carbon atoms. What characteristic of the mineral diamond makes it harder than the mineral graphite?
The carbon atoms in the diamond are arranged in a way that they are compactly arranged and are bonded strongly. The graphite's atoms are more loosely arranged and bonded less strongly.
A natural, nonliving material with a uniform structure and composition throughout the sample
Rock or
Mineral
mineral
A mixture of minerals
Rock or
Mineral
Rock
Igneous

Rock or
Mineral
Rock
Gold

Rock or
Mineral
Mineral
Talc

Rock or
Mineral
Mineral
Metamorphic

Rock or
Mineral
Rock
Explain the difference between erosion and accelerated erosion.
Ersoion is the removal and transportaion of soil materials from one place to an other by natural causes. Accellerated erosion is the same as erosion, but sped up or influenced by the activities of man.
The quality of a mineral that causes it to split, leaving smooth, flat surfaces.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density
Cleavage
A mineral's resistance to being scratched.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density
Hardness
The way a mineral reflects light.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density
Luster
Describes how heavy a particular mineral is for its size.
Luster
Cleavage
Hardness
Density
Density
Not a good characteristic for identification because many minerals have a variety of colors.
Streak
Color
Correct
The color of the fine powder of the mineral when it is rubbed on the dull side of a piece of white ceramic tile.
Streak
Color
Streak
Which of the following processes are involved in the formation of igneous rocks? There are two correct choices.
Cooling of magma or lava
Heat and pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing melting)
Crystallization (the process that takes place as magma or lava cools and hardens into rock)
Weathering (the breakdown of parent rock material into smaller pieces eventually forming soil)
Cooling of magma or lava

Crystallization (the process that takes place as magma or lava cools and hardens into rock)
Which of the following processes are involved in the formation of metamorphic rocks? There are two correct choices.
Heat (as rock is moved down deeper into the mantle, it gets hotter changing the consistency of the rock)
Pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing a change in the arrangement of the minerals in the rock)
Erosion (the removal of the top layer of soil from an area)
Recrystallization (previously formed rock that melts, then recrystallizes)
Heat (as rock is moved down deeper into the mantle, it gets hotter changing the consistency of the rock)

Pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing a change in the arrangement of the minerals in the rock)
Which of the following processes is involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks? There are three correct answers.
Compaction and cementation (processes acting on deposited sediments as a result of pressure and the presence of various minerals that will cement the sediment particles together)
Heat and pressure (forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing melting)
Weathering and erorosion (rock is brokend down by geologic processes and then transported to another location by wind, water, or glaciers)
Exposure (the removal of surface vegetation resulting in the possibility that soils will be eroded by wind or water)
Compaction and cementation (processes acting on deposited sediments as a result of pressure and the presence of various minerals that will cement the sediment particles together)

Weathering and erorosion (rock is brokend down by geologic processes and then transported to another location by wind, water, or glaciers)
Which of the following were factors that influenced the Dust Bowl event?

There are three correct answers.

Too many buffalo were left to overgraze the plains.
Decades of settlement in those areas and the increase in the number of farms.
Removal of the native grasses to plant crops.
Drought caused crops to fail leaving the soil exposed to the winds.
Decades of settlement in those areas and the increase in the number of farms.
Removal of the native grasses to plant crops.
Drought caused crops to fail leaving the soil exposed to the winds.
Scientists estimate the age of the earth to be ____________________.
4.3 to 4.6 billion years
Atoms, such as carbon-14, which are not stable and decay into a second, or daughter element, are said to be radioactive.
True
Radiometric dating is dependent on the concept of "half-lives." A half-life is the amount of time that it takes for half of the parent element to decay to the daughter element. The idea is that each radioactive element has its own specific half-life. This half-life is the same amount of time no matter how much of the radioactive element has decayed previously. So, if you have say 50 grams of radioactive element A. After one half-life there will be 25 grams of the parent element, and 25 grams of the daughter element. After the second half-life there will be 12.5 grams of the parent and 37.5 grams and so on. So, now say the half-life of this element A is 200 years. How many years would have passed if there were only 3.125 grams of the parent element left? (Hint: How many half-lives would it take to get down to that much parent element?)
Answer: 800 years

Explanation: Half- life / amount of element left
50g / 2 = 25g (200 years)
25g / 2 = 6.75g (600 years)
6.75g / 2 = 3.125g (800 years)
The most common form of carbon, carbon-12, has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons, Carbon-13 has 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Carbon-14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. So we have three forms atoms of this element. These various forms of the atom are called
A. Radioactive Elements
B. Isotopes
C. Electrodes
Isotopes
This principle states that in layers of rock that have been undisturbed, undeformed in any way, the lowest layers formed first, then the next and the next, and so on to the top layer. That puts the oldest layer on the bottom and the layers get younger and younger as you go up.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism
The Law of Superposition
Geologically, when fossils found in rock layers are considered, it is believed that identification of the fossils can help determine the age of the sedimentary rock layer in which the fossil is found. The older fossils are found in lower layers younger fossils in upper layers.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism
The Law of Faunal Succession
The belief that all of the processes at work today, that shape the face of the earth, were at work in the past; not only did the processes occur in the past, but they occurred at the same rate and in the same way as they do today.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism
Very simply, this principle states that when sedimentary layers are first formed, the sediments fall in horizontal layers.
A. The Law of Uniform Horizontality
B. The Law of Superposition
C. The Law of Faunal Succession
D. Uniformitarianism
The Law of Uniform Horizontality
Explain how relative time/dating is different than absolute time/dating.
Relative time/dating is not an exact age, it is based on other evidences. For example, if we have a series of horizontal rock layers, I can give an "older age" to the bottom layer and a "younger" age to the subsequent layers as you move up from the bottom.
Absolute time/dating is giving an object an exact or numerical age.
___________________ dating is a technique that uses radioactive elements to determine the absolute age of rocks and fossils (not absolute dating).
Radiometric dating is used to determine the age of rocks and fossils.
A trace of or portion of an organism which lived in the past is called a ______________.
fossil
Index fossils are well known fossils and are used to give relative ages of rock layers in which they are found.
True

By using radiometric dating scientists have identified the ages of fossils that are commonly found in sedimentary rock layers. It has also been observed that the fossils occur in a particular order in the layers of sedimentary rock layers all over the Earth. So, scientists now use these common fossils of known age as indexes. When they find that particular type of fossil, they can give a relative age to the rock layer it was found in
How do scientists use fact and inferences to determine or make assumptions about a situation?
First, we collect direct evidences: What are the facts we can observe directly? Then based on the facts we make inferences. Inferences are not facts, but the facts suggest the inference.
List the 4 major divisions of the geologic time scale in order from most recent to the most distant in the past.
Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrian
The Precambrian period of time is the most distant past. This period of time is often called the Cryptozoic period. Crypto for "hidden" and zoic for "life." Why is this an appropriate name for this time period?
Cryptozoic means hidden life. This is appropriate for the Precambrian time period because we know very little about the life that existed in that time period. The further and further we go back the fewer fossil evidences that we have.
Explain why it is impossible to know the exact age of the Earth? Give two reasons.
First, no direct witnesses were there. Second, there are few rocks from that period left. They have been changed by sedimentation and metamorphism.
The age of mammals, including man:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Cenozoic
The birth of the Earth occurred in which age:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Precambrian
The age of the reptile and the dinosaur:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Mesozoic
The age of the the invertebrates, the fish, and the amphibians:
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Paleozoic
Egg as compared to the earth

plates
core
mantle
crust
plates--cracked pieces
core--egg yolk
mantle--egg white
crust--egg shell (whole thing)
asthenosphere
the lower pliable mantle
lithosphere
the crust and brittle upper mantle forms the lithosphere
plate tectonics
the theory that implies that large portions of the earth's crust move is called plate tectonics
Mid-ocean ridge
The longest mountain range on earth's surface is the Mid-ocean ridge
plate
The large potions of the crust which move about on the mantle are the plates
James Hutton
scientist who proposed and popularized the idea that geologic processes occurring today occurred in the same way in the past.
Alfred Wegener
scientist who proposed and popularized the idea that the sea floor was spreading, causing the continents to move apart.
Which of the following characteristics does NOT describe the Mid-Ocean Ridge?

Averages 4,500m above sea floor
It is seen crossing the western edge of the North and South American continents.
It is over 50,000 km in length.
In places, is 800km across/wide
It is seen crossing the western edge of the North and South American continents.
transform boundary
The type of boundary where two plates slide horizontally past each other is called a transform boundary
convergent boundary
A boundary where two plates meet and collide forming mountains is called a .convergent boundary
subduction zone
The location where the sinking of one plate beneath the other in a collisional boundary occurs is called a subduction zone
divergent boundary
The type of plate boundary where new crust is generated as plates pull away from each other is called a divergent boundary
an example of a transform boundary
San Andreas Fault in western California
An example of a convergent/collisional boundary
Himalayan Mountains
An example of a divergent boundary
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between the lithosphere and asthenosphere?

The lithosphere is composed of the same materials as the asthenosphere.
The asthenosphere rides or floats on the lithosphere.
The lithosphere rides or floats on the asthenosphere.
None of these describes the relationship between the two.
The lithosphere rides or floats on the asthenosphere.
Plates float because

The mantel and the crust have equal densities.
The mantle material is less dense than crustal material.
The mantle material is more dense than crustal material.
The mantle material is more dense than crustal material.
Which of the events below are associated with plate boundaries?

Glaciers
Earthquakes
Tsunamis
Volcanic eruptions
Earthquakes
Tsunamis
Volcanic eruptions
Convection is the process believed to drive the movement of the plates of the crust.

True
False
True
The crust "rides" or "floats" on the

inner core
mantle
outer core
lithosphere
mantle
The outer layer of the earth is the

inner core
mantle
outer core
crust
crust
There are several events listed below. Some of the events are related to tectonic plate activity. Mark each that is associated with plate activity.

earthquakes
hurricanes
volcanoes
tsunamis
mountain building/formation
earthquakes
volcanoes
tsunamis
mountain building/formation
At plate boundaries there are a series or network of breaks and cracks along which movement of the plates occurs. These cracks are called

seismic hot spots
faults
collision points
break points
faults
slip-dip fault
A fault at which blocks of earth push or pull apart with one block of crust sliding up or down a sloped fault plane/surface is called a slip-dip fault
strike-slip fault
A fault in which the blocks of crust slide horizontally past each other is called a strike-slip fault
Seismologists, people who study earthquakes, often use the Richter scale. Explain what the values of the Richter scale represent.
The Richter scale is a scale of the magnitude of earthquakes, ranging from 0 to 10. It rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of the seismic waves caused by the earthquake. If a earthquake is a 7.4 on the scale it would be about 10 times stronger than a 6.4 earthquake.
Earthquake Prediction:
a. Describe one of the methods for, or indicators, used in predicting earthquakes.
b. Are prediction attempts very successful? Explain why or why not.
Measuring the amount of Radon and hydro gas emission, earthquakes can still happen in places where no gas is released.

Prediction attempts are actually very successful, Seismometer's and the GPS are very good at prediciting when a earthquake is coming.
Tell three ways that soil is important and for each explain why it is important in that way.
Soil is very important to the ecosystem. Soil is used as a water filter and a place in which plants can grow. Soil is a habitat for billions and billions of organisms which are contributors to biodiversity. Soil is also used as a holding facility for waste. Soil is also used as a foundation for cities and towns to build upon. Soil is also the basis for agriculture which provides the food, fiber and fuel that is needed to sustain life.
Soils are home for a wide variety of organisms such as worms and other tiny animals such as insects, arthropods (like spiders and millipedes). There are also organisms such as fungi and bacteria. Collectively these organisms serve two very important services to/in the soil. What are these services?
The organisms add organic matter to the material to form the subsoil and the topsoil. Animals also dig through the soil and break it up so that more water can enter the soil. Animals change the composition and structure of soil. The organisms serve as nutrients to the soil. Living organisms in the soil are able to break down the dead organic matter in order to provide nutrients to the plant life within the soil.
Soils are made up of a mineral portion, an organic portion, and air and water. What are the three mineral components of soil? Check all three.

clay
bits of plant material; dead organisms
silt
sand
clay
silt
sand
Soils are made up of a mineral portion, an organic portion, air and water. What is meant by the word organic?

nonliving, mineral in composition
composed of several organs
material that was produced by or was/is part of a living organism
musical in nature; played on the organ
material that was produced by or was/is part of a living organism
Soil composition and characteristics vary with depth. These differences in soils can be seen as layers in the soil called ???????
horizons
The two processes which are most often responsible for the breakdown of rock into soil particles are (Choose the two that apply.)

accretion
weathering
deposition
erosion
weathering
erosion
7. Soils are formed from the breakdown of rock below them. This rock material is referred to as "parent material".

True
False
True
8. What are the three agents which can transport large amounts of soil from their area of origin to an area hundreds or thousands of miles away? These are "agents of erosion."

wind
glaciers
water
solar radiation
wind
glaciers
water
9. In the outline find your section on soil horizons. In it you will find a diagram representing a view of a soil cut away.
Which of the layers in this example represents the horizon that is the parent material?

O
A
B
C
C
In the outline find your section on soil horizons. In it you will find a diagram representing a view of a soil cut away.
Which of the layers in this example represents the horizon that is alive with roots, fungi, bacteria, worms, small arthropods like spiders and so on?

O
A
B
C
A
In the outline find your section on soil horizons. In it you will find a diagram representing a view of a soil cut away. Which of the layers in this example represents the horizon that is very thin and contains large amounts of organic matter?

O
A
B
C
O
In the outline find your section on soil horizons. In it you will find a diagram representing a view of a soil cut away.
Horizon B in this example would be very difficult for soil organisms to move through because it would be a very hard layer.

True
False
True
What is soil erosion?
Soil erosion is the natural processes to remove soil through the action of water or wind. Soil erosion has been occuring throughout time and it can be a big problem, especially when people cause it to occur at a faster rate due to unwise actions such as poor farming methods or over grazing.
What are the three natural agents of erosion?
wind, water, and ice
Which of the 2 types of erosion occurs due to the activities of man?

Geologic Erosion
Accelerated Erosion
Accelerated Erosion
Erosion can be caused by?
(choose 3)

solar radiation
water
alpine, snow avalanches
glaciers
wind
water
glaciers
wind
What type of BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES should be used in places where the ground is sloped?

Choose all that apply

Terraces
Crop Rotation
Windbreaks
Grass waterways
Contour Cultivation
Terraces
Contour Cultivation
The Dust Bowl event of the 1930s occurred in what region of the United States?
Great Plains States
The mass soil erosion that occurred during the Dust Bowl event was caused by several contributing factors. Choose all that influenced this tragedy.

Decades of settling and farming had left tilled soil bare to the wind.
Severe drought was affecting the entire region.
Wild herds of buffalo over grazed the plains.
Native grasses had been removed for farming.
Decades of settling and farming had left tilled soil bare to the wind.
Severe drought was affecting the entire region.
Native grasses had been removed for farming.
Scientists believe that over grazing and inappropriate farming techniques can make the air above the ground drier and warmer — and therefore less likely to generate rain clouds, thus influencing drought in a region.

True
False
True
An early theory proposed that the continents were once a large continent, which split apart and moved to their present locations. Which of the following describes this?

continental drift
plate tectonics
sea floor spreading
uniformitarianism
continental drift
Which of the following is our best explanation for the driving force of plate tectonics?

convection cells
the Earth's magnetism
gravity
the Ring of Fire
convection cells
A group of researchers want to study volcanic gases. In order to ensure a fairly safe working environment they are looking for a volcano that is flat, gently sloping and built from many layers of gently flowing lava. Which location would you recommend to the group?

cinder cone volcanoes in New Zealand
composite volcanoes in Japan
lava domes in Washington State
shield volcanoes in Hawaii
shield volcanoes in Hawaii
Which of the following processes described the creation of new sea floor as a result of magma seeping through the cracks of the Earth's crust where plates are pulled apart?

continental drift
plate tectonics
sea floor spreading
uniformitarianism
sea floor spreading
Uniformitarianism
The processes shaping the earth that today are the same as were occurring in the past
Continental Drift
An early theory that proposed that the continents were once a large continent that spit apart and moved to their present locations.
Sea Floor Spreading
Where plates are being pulled apart, magma seeps up through cracks in the crust and creates new sea floor.
Plate Tectonics
Convection cells in the mantle create frictional drag which moves the large plates of the crust above it.
Because soils are made up of matter that has been eroded, it forms

in layers called horizons.
in layers called myakka.
as rock strata.
with no real organization.
in layers called horizons
At a subduction zone where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, which of the following is most likely to occur?

The continental plate sinks into the mantle and melts.
The oceanic plate sinks into the mantle and melts.
The oceanic plate slides underneath the continental plate, but remains intact and pushes the continental plate upwards.
The two plates collide and crumble upwards to form mountains.
The oceanic plate slides underneath the continental plate, but remains intact and pushes the continental plate upwards
Hardness
A mineral's resistance to being scratched
Streak
The color of the fine powder of the mineral when it is rubbed on the dull side of a piece of white ceramic tile.
Cleavage
The quality of a mineral that causes it to split, leaving smooth, flat surfaces
Luster
The way in which a mineral reflects light. (ex. metallic or nonmetallic)
Farmers, during the dust bowl of the 1930's, watched their soil be carried away by wind. What process removed the soil from the place it originated to distant locations?

cementation
erosion
lithification
sediments
erosion
Stress builds in the rocks on either side of ________. Eventually, the rocks will move creating the release of seismic waves.

earthquakes
faults
plates
volcanoes
faults
Plates float because the mantle:

has the same density as the crust.
is less dense than the crustal material
is more dense than the crustal material.
forces its way through the cracks in the crust
is more dense than the crustal material.
Which of the following are processes related to the formation of sedimentary rocks?

cooling and crystallization
deposition and compaction
heat and pressure
melting and uplift
deposition and compaction
Which of the following processes are related to the formation of igneous rocks?

addition of pressure
compaction and cementation of rock particles
melting of rocks
Weathering
melting of rocks
Streak, luster, cleavage, and hardness are characteristics useful in identifying minerals because

all minerals are the same color.
cleavage is the determining factor in mineral identification.
not all minerals have hardness.
they are characteristic properties.
they are characteristic properties
A soft sedimentary rock, like limestone, can change over time into a hard metamorphic rock like marble. What processes must have acted on the limestone over the years to change this sedimentary material into hard metamorphic material?
Heat and Pressure will change the consistency of the rock. The pressure forces occur as the rock is moved deeper below the surface. As the rock is moved deeper into the mantle, the heat will get hotter and hotter which will change the consistency of the rock that is moving. The pressure is extreme as it gets below the surface at the subduction zone which will cause the change in the arrangement of the minerals in the rock.
There are two types of body waves that travel out from the epicenter of an earthquake. Which of the following describes an S-wave?

can travel only through solids
cause horizontal records on a seismogram
travels fastest of all seismic waves
travel through both solids and liquids
can travel only through solids
The heat which drives the convection cells located in the Earth originates in the

crust
inner core
mantle
outer core
outer core
The Earth's crust can most accurately be described as

broken beyond repair.
destroyed.
segmented into pieces.
saturated with molten rock.
segmented into pieces
When an earthquake occurs, which of the following is the actual point of earth movement underground?

asthenosphere
epicenter
focus
lithosphere
focus
In order to prevent a mass erosion event, like we experienced in 1930's Dust Bowl event, which of the following should farmers do?

remove worms, ants, and other organisms that live in the soil
keep the land irrigated
remove native grasses
plant the same crops from year to year to acclimate the soil
keep the land irrigated
Explain why the Earth's inner core is solid, even when the temperatures might suggest it would be liquid.
The temperatures are so high but the pressures are so high that the solid core can't melt. The core is made of nickel and iron and is kept solid because the pressure is so strong that the high heat will not allow it to melt and become liquified.
Time that is measured in definite periods such as minutes, days, and years is called

relative time.
absolute time.
absolute time
Time that is judged according to some other "marker" of time, such as a person's gray hair and wrinkles is called

relative time.
absolute time.
relative time
Principle of Faunal Succession
Scientist today believe that as the earth formed different types of life came into being at different times. So geologically, when fossils found in rock layers are considered, it is believed that identification of the fossils can help determine the age of the sedimentary rock layer the fossil is found in
Principle of Superposition
This principle states that in layers of rock that have been undisturbed, geologists say - undeformed, the lowest layers formed first, then the next and the next, and so on to the top layer. That puts the oldest layer on the bottom and the layers get younger and younger as you go up
Principle of Original Horizontality
When sedimentary layers are first formed, the sediments fall in horizontal layers.
Uniformitarianism
The belief that the processes at work today, that shape the face of the earth, that were at work in the past. It is important to understand that not only did the processes occur in the past, but they that they occur at the same rate and in the same way.
When observations, over time, repeatedly support an assumption, the assumption comes to be known as a principle.

True
False
True
A geologist is studying a section of sedimentary rock layers that have been newly exposed by a landslide. Based on what principle, the geologist would assume that the layers increased in age as they looked at them from top to bottom.

unitarianism
Principle of Superposition
Principle of Original Horizontality
Principle of Faunal Succession
Principle of Superposition
Which of the following is oldest?

Precambrian Time
Paleozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
Cenozoic Era
Precambrian Time
What is the most recent geologic Era?

Cenozoic
Mesozoic
Paleozoic
Proterozoic
Cenozoic
In what era did dinosaurs inhabit the Earth?

Cenozoic
Mesozoic
Paleozoic
Proterozoic
Mesozoic
During what era did the following two extremely important events occur:1. Multicelled animals underwent a dramatic explosion in diversity (almost all living animal phyla appeared within a few million years).2. The largest mass extinction in history wiped out approximately 90% of all marine animal species.

Cenozoic
Mesozoic
Paleozoic
Proterozoic
Paleozoic
Which of the following Eras is described by these two facts:1. Earth's atmosphere was likely a mix of methane, ammonia, and other gases which would be toxic to most life on our planet today.2. Life (bacteria) first appeared on Earth.

Paleozoic
Proterozoic
Archaean
Hadean
Archaean
The evolution and expansion of our own species, Homo sapiens, occurred during the Holocene Age.

True
False
False
Dinosaurs became extinct at the beginning of the Cretaceous period.

True
False
False
The Quaternary is the name of the period containing current time.

True
False
True
How many ice ages do scientist estimate have occurred during the last billion years?

3
5
6
7
5
How often do scientists say that recent cycles of advancing and retreating ice sheets occur?

approximately every 100,000 years
approximately every 50,000 years
approximately every 10,000 years
approximately every 1,000 years
approximately every 100,000 years
Which is faster: the advance or the retreat of an ice sheet?

The advance of an ice sheet is faster.
The retreat of an ice sheet is faster.
The retreat of an ice sheet is faster
Which of the following is NOT considered geologic evidence of past ice ages?

glacial till and erratics
loess
ice shelves
rock striations
ice shelves
Which of the following is NOT believed to be a cause of ice ages?

Changes in the orbit of the Earth around the Sun
Changes in the positions of the continents
Changes in volcanic activity
Variations in the energy output of the sun
Changes in the orbit of the Earth around the Sun
Which of the following is NOT a common landform caused by the passing of a glacier?

Drumlins
Esker
Moraine
Steppe
Steppe
There are sometimes flowing rivers within a glacier.

True
False
True
Glaciers form and grow when the snowfall from one season does not melt and is later covered and compressed into ice by the snowfall of the following seasons.

True
False
True
Scientists believe that the Earth is presently overdue for an Ice Age.

True
False
True
Ocean levels rise during an ice age due to an increase in moisture retention in Earth's global biosphere.

True
False
False
Radioactive parent elements will become stable daughter elements through the process of

absolute dating.
radioactive decay.
radiometric dating.
stabilization.
radioactive decay
2.
At times, information can still be obtained about an organism even when the fossil itself is not left behind. ____________ are examples of fossil formations where the imprint of the organism is left behind.

Molds and casts
Index fossils
Minerals
Plant fossils
molds and casts
Which of the following geologic time periods is associated with the birth of the Earth and the first appearance of the earliest life forms?

Cenozoic
Mesozoic
Paleozoic
Precambrian
Precambrian
drumlins
large groups of steep sided streamlined glacial till
eskers
steep snake like ridges composed of glacial till
kettles
lakes formed in bowl like holes in glacial drift deposits
moraine
irregular rolling ground created by glacial debris or till
The amount of time it takes for half of the parent element of a radioactive element to decay to the stable daughter element is called

the geologic time scale.
a half-life.
a light year.
spectroscopy.
a half-life
According to the Big Bang theory, about how long ago did the Big Bang occur?

12-14 thousand years ago
12-14 million years ago
12-14 billion years ago
12-14 trillion years ago
12-14 billion years ago
How big do scientists estimate the universe was just before the Big Bang occurred?

a few millimeters
a few inches
a few meters
a few miles
a few millimeters
Before the Big Bang, the universe was much ______ and _________ than it is now.

hotter and less dense
hotter and more dense
cooler and less dense
cooler and more dense
hotter and more dense
What is the basic idea of the Cosmological Principle?

matter has always been lumped together irregularly throughout the universe, with large empty spaces between.
matter is fairly evenly spread througout the universe, when viewed on a large scale.
matter was once fairly evenly spread throughout the universe, but black holes have caused it to lump together in irregular patterns since the Big Bang.
there is no way to generalize about the distribution of matter in the universe.
matter is fairly evenly spread throughout the universe, when viewed on a large scale
The Theory of General Relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein, has given scientists a way to understand _________ as it relates to bodies in motion,

matter
entropy
gravity
energy
gravity
Scientific observations have shown that the universe is

expanding
shrinking
heating up
stationary
expanding
What extension of the Big Bang theory may provide the framework for explaining the large-scale uniformity of our universe AND the origin of structure within it?

the Mass Order theory
the Mass Distibution Theory
the Inflation Theory
the Dark Matter Theory
the Inflation Theory
What are the two theoretical pillars of the Big Bang Model?

General Relativity and The Cosmological Principle
General Relativity and The Inflation Theory
Newtonian Gravity and The Cosmological Principle
Newtonian Grativity and The Inflation Theory
General Relativity and The Cosmological Principle
Optical telescopes are designed to collect and create images from

white or visible light
x-rays
infrared radiation
gamma rays
white or visible light
Which of the following would not be considered a satellite?

Halley's Comet
Europa ( a moon of Jupiter)
Earth's Moon
a communications satellite
Halley's Comet
Quasars
some of most distant, and there for oldest, objects in the universe; releases energy of billions of stars
Nebulae
the name given to many indiscernible objects in space; now know that these are galaxies, dust clouds, star clusters, etc.
Galaxy
an enormous collection of billions of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity
Comets have orbits that are in the shape of an exaggerated __________. Because of this, we see them only when their orbit brings them into our solar system.
eliptical
Which of the following is NOT found in the Milky Way galaxy's galactic halo?

a few lone stars
dark matter
some star clusters
the Sun
the Sun
Which of the following is the correct order of the components of the Milky Way galaxy, from outermost to innermost?

thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, galactic halo, black hole
thin disk, extreme disk, thick disk, galactic halo, black hole
galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole
extreme disk, thick disk, thin disk, galactic halo, black hole
galactic halo, thick disk, thin disk, extreme disk, black hole
In what part of the Milky Way is our solar system located?

thick disk
thin disk
extreme disk
galactic halo
thin disk
What evidence do scientists have that lead them to believe there is a black hole at the center of the Milky Way?

They have directly measured the gravity of the black hole.
They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.
They have observed comets and asteroids disappearing into the area.
They have sent a probe into the area and it did not return.
They have observed the very rapid orbits of stars close to the area.
About how much of the mass of the Milky Way has yet to be discovered by scientists?

95%
70%
20%
5%
95%
What galaxy is rushing towards the Milky Way from 2.5 million light years away and will eventually merge with it?

Sagittarius dwarf
Small Magellanic cloud
Nostromo
Andromeda
Andromeda
Earth is located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way.

True
False
True
The Milky Way's central bulge is located in the middle of the galaxy and is mainly a birth place for new stars.

True
False
False
The spiral arms of the Milky Way contain mostly blue stars, gas and dust.

True
False
True
What is the main factor that influences how long a star burns?

The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans.
The mass of the star. Larger stars have longer lifespans.
How close the star is to other stars.
How close the star is to a black hole.
The mass of the star. Larger stars have shorter lifespans
About how fast are solar winds travelling when they pass Earth?

100 mph
1,000 mph
1,000,000 mph
1 mph
1,000,000 mph
Core
central region where nuclear reactions consume hydrogen to form helium.
Radiative zone
energy generated in the core is carried by light (photons) that bounces from particle to particle through this zone.
Sunspots
dark areas on the surface of the Sun. Temperatures here drop to about 3700 K (compared to 5700 K for the surrounding photosphere).
Photosphere
the visible surface of the Sun that we are most familiar with.
Chromosphere
an irregular layer above the photosphere where the temperature rises from 6000° C to about 20,000° C.
Corona
the Sun's outer atmosphere. It displays a variety of features including streamers, plumes, and loops and is visible during total eclipses of the Sun as a pearly white crown surrounding the Sun.
Flares
tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT.
Prominence
a dense cloud of material suspended above the surface of the Sun by loops of magnetic field.
The sun does not normally affect the tides to a noticeable degree. However under certain circumstances the gravitational pull of the sun does affect the tides. Under what two (2) conditions.

when the sun, moon, and earth are in a line
only when the moon is between the sun and earth
only when the earth is between the sun and the moon
when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another with respect to the Earth
when the sun, moon, and earth are in a line

when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another with respect to the Earth
tides
The periodic rise and fall of large bodies of water due to the gravitational interaction between the earth and the Moon