APUSH ID Terms Round 3
Terms in this set (171)
Jamestown Virginia Colony
First Successful British Settlement in North America. Settled in 1607. Colony in Virginia.
Plymouth New England Colony
Colony Founded by Separatists/Pilgrims from Britain, governed by William Bradford, direct democracy through the mayflower compact
Calvinism/Predestination: God is sovereign and in control. Salvation can only be achieved through belief in Jesus. Live Morally. Education. Protestant Work Ethic.
Belief that God does not directly affect people. Belief in a higher being, but that the earth is governed by natural law and reason.
House of Burgesses
Colonial Assembly of Virginia/Jamestown. Representative Self-government that controlled money and expenditures. "power of the purse"
Husband of Pocahontas, discovered a popular blend of tobacco in Virginia. Led to Virginians becoming dependent on a single cash crop.
Economic System where mother country tries to gain wealth through exporting more than it imports.
When the British passed an Act but failed to enforce it.
1730s, led by Jonathan Edwards. Started as a Puritan revival but it backfires into a growth of Christianity. Leads to a growth in religion but not Puritanism.
First official form of popular representation in the colonies. Each colony had one of these.
1754 "Join or Die" Colonists from various colonies begin talking about independence. Beginnings of unification amongst colonists. Ben Franklin wanted intercolonial cooperation.
French and Indian War
1754-1763 War where France was allied with the Algonquin Indians and British with the Iroquois. Ended with a British Victory. Treaty of Paris of 1763.
Early 1700s. The 13 colonies should mainly trade with Europe, should be using English Ships, placed a tariff on goods collected at international ports, and forbade colonial manufacturers who competed with British manufacturers.
Rebellion by Indians after the French and Indian war due to dissatisfaction with British rules in the Great Lakes. Led by chief Pontiac.
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation by King George that forbade all American settlement past the Appalachian Mountains.
Stamp Act Congress 1765
1765, Meeting in New York with delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies. Showed allegiance to the crown; "No taxation without representation"
Townshend Act 1767
1767, Act where Great Britain tightened regulations on America through taxes on paper, glass, paint, and tea, which were used to pay British officials
Acts that closed the Boston Port, decreased the Massachusetts legislative power, British officials would be tried in Great Britain, not America, Quartering Act expanded
A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
First Continental Congress
1774, Meeting with 12 colonies (excluding Georgia), in Philadelphia; Declaration of Rights and Grievances established, Suffolk Resolves formed, talk of revolution
Second Continental Congress
1775, Meeting with all 13 colonies present; Continental Army formed and George Washington named commander, Olive Branch Petition sent from this meeting
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, Promoted the war effort, Bitter against the British
Declaration of Independence
1776, Legislation that gave equality of man, inalienable rights of "life, liberty, and pursuit of property", government by the people.
Turning Point battle of revolutionary war, Colonist victory. Shows European countries that America has a chance and leads to the Franco American Alliance.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty that Ends the American Revolutionary war, Peace meeting only with the British (French excluded), Great Britain formally recognizes US sovereignty!!!
Articles of Confederation
First Form of American government established, "A Firm league of Friendship", Each state was given one vote (Congress of Delegates), ultimately a very weak form of government
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Set up Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan as territories, set up statehood requirements, prohibited slavery in these regions: Ordinance
Rebellion by poor farmers who could not pay their property taxes, Farmers rebelled and shut down the debtor's court, showed need for a stronger federal government
The document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles through which the US is governed, contains all the amendments, drafted by the Constitutional convention, scrapped the articles
States Right devotees, opposed a stronger federal government, liked the Articles of Confederation; Frontiersmen, debtors, poor classes
Papers written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay during the Constitutional debate
Bill of Rights
Legislation Guaranteed to the Anti-federalists in Federalist Paper #10, Passed during George Washington's presidency
Political Party during Colonial Era that supported a stronger federal government. Included people such as Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
Jefferson's Democratic Republicans
Political Party that was opposed to the Federalist ideals, they wanted a weaker federal government at first
Proclamation of Neutrality
Proclamation by George Washington that stated US foreign policy as isolationist and neutral
Treaty with Spain that gave the US the right to use the Mississippi river and to deposit goods for free in New Orleans
Rebellion where farmers were protesting a federal excise tax, George Washington put the rebellion down fairly easily with the army, showed that government was too strong
Alien and Sedition Acts
Acts under John Adams that provided new residency requirements, deportation rules, and sedition penalties.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The first argument between the state and federal governments, in response to the Alien and Sedition acts; state right to nullify federal law
Largest Land deal in US history, Purchase from Napoleon Bonaparte, under Thomas Jefferson's presidency
Marbury v Madison
Court case that established the power of judicial review after John Adams' appointment of midnight judges to the supreme court
Embargo Act of 1807
Act during Jefferson's presidency in response to Impressment of US ships, forbade American ships from leaving US ports, showed our neutrality snd isolationism
Convention with Federalists during the War of 1812 where some Federalists spoke of secession from the union, led to the end of the Federalist party
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ends the war of 1812, says nothing about impressment and ends the war with no clear winner
Henry Clay's Federal economic system proposal which included a strong national bank, a protective tariff, and federally funded internal improvement projects, the last of which does not pass in Congress
Agreement between the North and the South where Missouri was named a slave state and Maine was named a free state in order to keep the voting situation equal
Doctrine that stated that Europe and the Western Hemisphere have different political systems; Europe is not supposed to colonize in Latin America/Western Hemisphere anymore
Form of government where the Spoils System was instituted as well as Rotation of office in order to give opportunities to all "common men"
Second Issue of state vs Federal government. South Carolina and John C. Calhoun deem the Tariff of Abominations unconstitutional and refuse to abide by it. Andrew Jackson gets force bill passed. Ends with compromise tariff of 1833.
Crisis under Andrew Jackson where he saw the bank as violating fundamental rights and creating giant corporations, decided to reject its creation
Peggy Eaton Affair
Controversy under Jackson's presidency where there was Gossip about a Woman and this led to the resignation of John C. Calhoun
Indian Removal Act
Act where Jackson forced the resettlement Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi. Crisis involving the Cherokee. "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it"
Maysville Road Veto
Veto by Jackson due to the construction of a road would have benefitted Kentucky more than the federal government
Second Great Awakening
Reform movement started to promote calvinism, predestination, and puritanism.
Led by Nathaniel Taylor and Charles Finney. Inspired a Social reform of Temperance.
American Colonization Society
Society that stated that slavery was bad and that gradual elimination of slavery is necessary. Deportation of slaves back to Africa.
William Lloyd Garrison
White new England man strongly opposed to slavery, wanted immediate emancipation without compensation for owners. Had a magazine called the Liberator.
People who sought a more intense experience with nature and themselves. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thoreau were key in this movement.
Slave abolitionist, African American. Strong social reformer, orator, and writer.
1848, Convention for Women's rights in New York.
Declaration of Sentiments
Legislation created at the Seneca Falls convention which rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include rights for women.
Reform to do away with drinking, sin, and evil. Viewed drinking as a threat to public morality. Led by Neal Dow.
The saying that it was America's God-given-fate to expand from coast to coast across North America.
Treaty that defined the border of Oregon country. Oregon would be divided at the 49th parallel. Half would do to GB and half would go to the US.
Territorial acquisition from Mexico after the Mexican American war. Included parts of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, etc.
Compromise of 1850
Compromise that covered the Mexican Cession. 5 parts included: California is a free state, fugitive slave law toughened, popular sovereignty, no more slave trade in DC, and Texas boundary settled.
Process that allows people in an area to decide on what issues to vote on. Instituted in the Compromise of 1850.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Act passed in 1854. Cass and Douglas repealed the Missouri Compromise. Popular sovereignty would be instituted above the 36 30' line.
Dred Scott v Sanford
Court case where Slave went with owner into free territory, sues for freedom. Court gives verdict that Congress has no right to stop slavery in a territory. Missouri Compromise was deemed unconstitutional.
Republican Party 1850s
Political party in the 1850s that was rather radical in its actions. They did not like Slavery and wanted its expansion to come to a halt. Abraham Lincoln was elected this party's presidential nominee.
John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
Event where a white abolitionist tried to initiate an armed slave revolt by taking over a federal military arsenal.
Proposal to ban slavery in the Mexican Cession that ultimately fails to pass.
Free black man who was hanged for his involvement in a potential slave revolt in South Carolina.
An enslaved African-American who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831, that resulted in the deaths of at least fifty white people
An African-American abolitionist and humanitarian. She led hundreds of thousands of slaves through the underground railroad.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Female abolitionist who wrote the book Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln that gave freedom to all slaves who were part of the confederacy.
System of farming where land owners allow farmers to live on the farm in return for work and crop percentages. Very similar to slavery, just without the name.
Organization created by the government in order to aid the millions of southerners who were left homeless and hungry by the war.
Amendment that abolished slavery throughout all of The United States
Amendment that gave citizenship to for all people born in the US, blacks included. Stated that State and Federal Governments are responsible for guaranteeing equal rights to all Americans.
Amendment that gave Suffrage to all men, including Blacks.
Laws meant to restrict black freedoms, not segregation.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws meant to create separate facilities for blacks and whites.
Hayes Tilden Compromise
Name for the election of 1876. Democrat candidate wins popular vote but gives the Republican presidency in exchange for the end of Southern reconstruction.
Dawes Act 1887
Native American policy that divided land into small plots for individual families. Does not work, Indians were resistant.
Act that promoted western settlement by allocating land to people who would settle and cultivate the land for 5 years.
Grange vs Farmers' Alliance
2 Organizations of similar agrarian purposes. One Organization Promoted economic unity through social and agrarian success for farmers, while the other competing organization pushed for Economic success for farmers through the regulation of transportation and creation of an income tax.
Plessy v Ferguson 1896
Court Case that stated that Segregation was constitutional as long as it was separate but equal
Mode of transportation that standardized time zones, dependable, quick, had direct routes, government land was often given to this form of transportation, revolutionized trade in America
Extremely wealthy railroad tycoon
Banker who helped the Railroad companies to get rid of debts, he issued stock to make capital, created "voting trusts", eventually bought out Carnegie's steel company and named it US Steel
Extremely wealthy Steel tycoon; did a lot of philanthropic work with his money
Extremely wealthy oil tycoon, did a lot of philanthropic work with his money
Gospel of Wealth
Belief that it is the duty of the rich to philanthropically give back to the poor and those who do not have such money through communal offerings such as libraries and schools.
Knights of Labor
Labor Union led by Uriah Stevens and Terrance V. Powderly; tried to unite all Americans into a union, included women and blacks, was blamed for Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago, unsuccessful.
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
Led by Samuel Gompers, Labor Union that included only skilled workers, excluded women and blacks; created an 8 hour work day of 6 days a week, led to immensely higher wages. Successful.
Strike by Railroad car company workers, Eugene V. Debs led this strike. Grover Cleveland issued an injunction. Violence resulted.
Haymarket Square Riot
Strike in Chicago for an 8 hour workday. Anarchists led the strike but the Knights of Labor were blamed. Major violence.
Homestead Steel Plant Strike
Steel union called a strike to protest a 20% wage cut. Henry Clay Frick locks out workers. Strikers end up giving up because Pinkertons could not be stopped.
Industrial Workers of the World
Labor Union founded in 1905. Key members included Eugene V. Debs and Mother Jones.
Political Cartoonist known for exposing Boss Tweed for his corruption in politics through his cartoons.
Boss Tweed (Tammany Hall)
Corrupt politician who stole over $200 Million from New York City and participated in Graft corruption.
People who supported change such as Church members, union members, blacks, women, socialists, and communists. Not always a unified group. Many divisions.
W.E.B. Dubois (Niagara Movement)
Black Rights activist who started the NAACP. Pursued black rights through litigation. Wanted immediate rights.
Booker T. Washington (Atlanta Compromise)
Black rights activist who took a very passive form of activism. Wanted blacks to achieve rights through making names for themselves economically.
Scientist who proposed the theory of Social Darwinism and Natural Selection: The survival of the fittest.
Founded the Hull House, the first settlement house, in Chicago. Very progressive woman.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Act under Benjamin Harrison. Failed. Was supposed to limit trusts but ultimately limited labor unions. Had no means of enforcement.
Bland Allison Act 1878
Act that required the US government to create a limited form of silver coinage.
Political party created due to farmer discontent. Mary E. Lease was the radical leader. Wants defined by the Ocala platform.
Birth control activist who initially supported sterilization but eventually started to support birth control medication and the diaphragm.
Amendment that created a graduated income tax
Amendment that provided the direct election of senators
Volstead Act, Amendment that created Prohibition
Amendment that gave women suffrage
Election of 1896 (WJB vs McKinley)
Election where both Democrats and Populists choose William Jennings Bryan as their candidate. Ends up going with Democrats. Democrats lose to William McKinley and the republicans.
Gold Standard Act of 1900
Act that completely ended circulation of silver, greatly angered the Populist Party
Justification for Imperialism
The need for resources (tobacco, oil, sugar, pineapples), industrialization, closing of the frontier, European precedents, American nationalism, Security.
A type of writing that is characterized by crude exaggerations and often lies. Famous yellow journal publishers include Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
Spanish American War
War between the US and Spain. Caused by Humanitarianism, Yellow journalism, the de lôme letter, the sinking of the USS Maine, and Jingoism.
"Amendment" that said the US would leave control of Cuba to the Cuban people after the war.
"Amendment" that told Cubans to not sign entangling treaties, to not get into debt, and that the US gets Guantanamo Bay. After the Spanish American War.
Muckraker who wrote The Jungle which exposed the horrible conditions in Meat packing industries. Led to reform.
Investigative journalists who exposed the internal problems in America. Progressive journalists, pushed for reform through writing. Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair,
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Organization created by WEB DuBois that specialized in Litigation for the pursuit of African American rights.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the Socialist party of America. Led the Pullman strike. Very radical.
President from 1901-1908, Republican, Nicknamed the "Trust Buster", Favored conservation immensely
Teddy Roosevelt's plan to create equal respect amongst workers and management
Teddy Roosevelt's stewardship theory of presidency; He used his presidency in order to define goals, problems, and solutions for America
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine, said that the US will help any country in the Western Hemisphere that is in need of assistance
Open Door Policy
Foreign Policy that the US really wanted towards China. Kept spheres of influence from European powers, but allowed the US to use China for economic benefits
Selective Service Act
Act that created conscription/a lottery draft during WW1 under Woodrow Wilson's presidency.
Act that Jailed Americans for aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment, or encouraging disloyalty
Act that restricted Americans from using disloyal, profane, or abusive language about the Government, flag, or armed forces
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North during and after WW1. Done in hopes of receiving a better life with less discrimination.
CPI (Committee on Public Information)
Committee set up during WW1 in order to influence people via art, ads, films, and speeches (propaganda)
Henry Cabot Lodge vs Woodrow Wilson
Controversy involving the President's 14 points and his idea to make the US part of the league of nations and another senator's strong opposition to this idea and his tireless efforts to put it down. Ultimately, led to the rejection of the league of nations and 14 points by the US.
President Woodrow Wilson's plan/objectives during Ww1. Included removing the things that caused the war, fixing ethnic divisions, and establishing the league of nations.
Birth of a Nation
Film produced in the year 1915 that increased participation in the KKK as well as a resurgence in its activity.
Name given to women during the roaring twenties who went against social norms and did activities such as smoke, drink, and party. Often cut their hair very short and wore exposing dresses.
Time period in America where the purchase and sale of alcoholic beverages was restricted by the 18th amendment. Few people actually abided by it. Done to produce a sober workforce. Led to an increase in bootleggers and speakeasies.
Movement in New York during the 1920s that increased African American pride but did not lead to a lot of change. Massive cultural movement. Leaders of this were Jazz musicians Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong, Archibald Motley, W.E.B. DuBois, and Langston Hughes.
Belief by a lot of Americans that only "old" protestant Americans were acceptable, while the new immigrants were not. The KKK was a strong believer in this.
Time period during the 1920s where Americans were fearful of the spread of Communism in America. They were afraid of labor unrest because Eugene V. Debs was still running for president. Ultimately spurred by the successful Bolshevik revolution.
Term to describe a group of writers during the 1920s who sought personal alienation and viewed the war effort as being in vain. This writers include Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Steinbeck.
Lower taxes+lower government spending+higher tariff=?
Andrew Mellon: Secretary of Treasury
Secretary of Treasury initially appointed under Warren G. Harding and continued to serve under Coolidge and Hoover. He called for a prompt and thorough revision of the tax system as well as an emergency tariff act.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Scandal under Warren G. Harding's presidency where his attorney general and secretary of the interior received bribes for the sale of private land.
Trial involving a biology teacher from Tennessee who taught evolution instead of creation which was against the law. Clarence Darrow defended him and WJB defended the prosecution. Ended with the teacher losing, but it showed how the US is changing.
President during the start of the Great depression from years 1928-1932. Passed the Reconstruction Finance Corporation but was too late. His name is labeled on shantytowns and blankets of poverty.
RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation)
Corporation created under Herbert Hoover that was meant to help revive failing banks by giving them loans. Was a federal program, something that Hoover did not like doing.
Organized WW1 Veterans who protested the receiving of their pension check in 1945. They wanted their check much earlier and ended up marching down to Washington D.C. To demand it. Forced out through the tanks and army.
President during the majority of the great depression and WW2 from 1932-1945. Died of a stroke. His idea for getting America out of the depression was the New Deal. Elected for more than 2 terms.
New Deal Agencies
FERA, CCC, CWA, WPA, NYA, PWA, TVA, AAA, NRA, FHA, FDIC, SEC, Social Security, Unemployment Compensation
Social Security Act
Act that gave pensions for older Americans, disabled people, and survivors of accidents and traumas in order to have a safe retirement and life if they could not provide themselves.
Act that created the National Labor Relations Board and Act. Permitted collective bargaining, outlawed union busting, arbitrated disputes between management and labor.
National Labor Relations Board
Board set up by the Wagner Aft in order to regulate businesses.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Act that set up a minimum wage, a 40 hour work week, and placed restrictions on child labor. Was passed after the NRA was found unconstitutional.
Good Neighbor Policy
Foreign policy under FDR that contradicted the Roosevelt corollary and Monroe Doctrine. Stated that the US would not intervene nor imperialize in Latin America, rather we would focus on cooperation and friendship. Like a good neighbor, state farm is there.
Critics of the New Deal
Senator Huey Long (Share our Wealth Program), Dr. Francis E. Townsend, Father Charles Coughlin (Catholic Radio Priest)
Kellogg Briand Pact
Pact that outlawed war except in cases of self defense. 1928. Had no enforcement,thus was a failure.
Conference where GB and France demanded a halt to Hitler's expansion. Showed European appeasement to Hitler. Hitler ultimately broke the agreement and expanded further.
Cash and Carry Program
Program that made all international trade coming out of the US to be purchased in cash and taken out on the purchasing country's own ships.
1941. Act that said the President can sell, exchange, or lend war materials to any country whose security is vital to the US's security.
Conscription issued by FDR before entrance into WW2 to increase population in the armed forces.
Places where the Japanese were put during American hostilities with the Japanese prior to and during WW2. Were deemed constitutional due to the court case Korematsu vs US.
Rosie the Riveter
American Icon for women that spurred involvement in the war effort by encouraging women to join the industrial workforce.
US Migration during WW2
Movement of Blacks from rural south to industrial north for a second time, Mexicans began migrating into the US for jobs, Mexican Americans moved into cities for industrial jobs.
Teheran Conference 1943
Big 3 of Stalin, FDR, and Churchill. Conference where strategy fir the end of the war was established: Defeat Germany first and then Japan.
Yalta Conference 1945
Big 3 of Stalin, FDR, and Churchill. Conference where Russia came in with a lot of confidence. Decision to divide Germany up into 4 zones for the British, French, Russians, and Americans. Russia got control of North Korea and Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe.
Potsdam Conference 1946
Truman, Stalin, and Churchill/Atlee. Conference where the 4 zones of Germany were transferred to the correct countries and Germany is disarmed.