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sensory receptors

___ ___ are specialized to changes in their environment, which are called stimuli


classification by stimulus type: these receptors respond to force such as pressure, vibration, touch, and stretch


classification by stimulus type: these receptors are sensitive to temperature changes


classification by stimulus type: these receptors, such as those of the retina of the eye, respond to light energy


classification by stimulus type: these receptors respond to chemicals in solution (smells, tastes, changes in blood)


these receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain. this includes subtypes of thermo, mechano, and chemoreceptors


these receptors are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body and are located near the body surface. they sense touch, pressure, pain and temp on the skin and most special senses


these receptors, also called visceroceptors, respond to stimuli within the body. they can cause discomfort, thirst, and hunger, but we are usually unaware of hteir workings


these receptors, like interoceptors, respond to internal stimuli, but their location is restricted to muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and tissue coverings. they monitor how much these things are stretched


there are simple and complex receptors, but most are ___

sense organs

complex receptors are actually ___ ___, localized collections of cells associated with the special senses

general sensory

___ ___ receptors are involved in sensing touch, pressure, stretch, vibrations, and a bunch of other simple senses. they can be free nerve endings or encapsulated nerve endings


these nerve endings, also called "free," are present nearly everywhere, but are abundant in the skin and connective tissue. they respond chiefly to painful and temp stimuli, includes merkel discs and hair follicle receptors

vanilloid receptor

a recently discovered receptor, the __ ___, in the plasma membrane of nociceptive free nerve endings, is an ion channel opened by heat, low pH, and capsaicin

Merkel discs

certain free nerve endings associate with enlarged disc shaped epidermal cells to form ___ ___, which lie in deep layers of the epidermis and function as light touch receptors

hair follicle receptors

____ ____ ___ are light touch receptors that detect bending of hairs

encapsulated dendritic endings

all ___ ___ ___ consist of one or more fiber terminals of sensory neurons enclosed in a connective tissue capsule. virtually all are mechanoreceptors

Meissner's corpuscles

encapsulated receptors known as ___ ___ are small exteroreceptors that respond to light pressure, discriminative touch, vibration of low frequency, and they rapidly adapt

pacinian corpuscles

these encapsulated dendritic receptors are extero, intero, and protioceptors that respond to deep pressure, stretch, vibration of high frequency, and are rapidly adapting

Ruffini endings

___ ___ are encapsulated receptors that lie in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and joint capsules that and exteroceptors and proprioceptors. they respond to deep pressure and stretch and don't really adapt

muscle spindles

___ ___ are proprioceptors found throughout the perimysium of skeletal muscles. they respond to muscle stretch and length and initiate a reflex that resists stretch

golgi tendon organs

___ ___ ___ are proprioceptors located in tendons, close to the skeletal muscle insertion. they consist of tendon fibers enclosed in a capsule with sensory terminals coiling between and around the fibers.

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