49 terms

Biology 100 Study Guide

What type of lipids are found in cell membranes?
Phospholipids are found in the cell membrane, they make up the lipiid bilayer of hydrophilic tails and hydrophobic heads.
Are proteins found in cell membranes?
If proteins are found in cell membranes, what are the possible funcitons of these proteins?
Adhesion, Communication, Receptor, Recognition, Passive and Active Transport.
What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?
An explanation of cell membarne structure, the membrane has a mixed composition (mosaic) of lipids and proteins, the interactions and motions of which impart fluidity to it.
What is Diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of like ions or molecules from a region where they are most concentrated to an adjoining region where they are less concentrated.
What is the process of Endocytosis?
The mechanism by which a patch of plasma membrane balloons inward and forms a vesicle, which sinks into the cytoplasm.
What are the three types of Endocytosis?
Phagocytosis, Bulk Phase, and Receptor Mediated.
What is Exocytosis?
Opposite of Endocytosis, inside to outside.
What molecules can diffuse across a cell membrane?
Oxygen, and alcohol.
What molecules require a transport protein to move across a cell membrane?
Sugars and nucleotides.
What is Energy?
Energy is the capactiy to do work.
What is Kinetic energy?
Energy of motion.
What is Potential energy?
Stored energy.
What is Heat energy?
Useless energy.
What is Chemical energy?
Thermodynamics, and involved in chemical reactions.
Can energy be created or destroyed?
Which form of energy is least useful?
What is metabolism?
All the controlled, enzyme mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as they synthesize, store, degrade, and eliminate substances.
What are the parts of metabolism?
Anabolic and catabolic. Either require a net input of energy for production, or release usable energy.
Most enzymes are proteins.
Enzymes increase activation energy of a chemical reaction.
Electron transfer reactions are also known as oxidation-reduction reactions.
Electron transfer chains give off usable energy in small manageable amounts.
Biosynthesis and degradative metabolism are linked by ATP.
Enzymes are catalysts.
Catalysts reduce the speed of a chemical reaction.
Temperature, pH, and salt concentration effect enzymes.
Metabolism is an ordered sequence of chemical reactions.
When ATP is used for energy is looses a phosphate group and becomes ADP.
Feedback inhibition controls the activity of an enzyme.
Enzymes are not specific for their substrates.
ADP is never recycled to make ATP.
Chemical energy is stored in the bonds of molecules.
Heat energy is very useful form of energy.
Biosynthesis part of metabolism uses ATP for energy.
Electron transport chains are located in the membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Cells produce only what they require-no more or no less.
The two major energy producing pathways are aerobic respiration and fermentation. In what locations does each pathway occur in a cell? Which pathway produces more ATP?
Aerobic respiration is an oxygen dependent pathway. Aerobic produces 36 or more ATP. Fermentation is conducted in the absnce of air. Produces two ATP.
What is the function of NAD and FAD cofactors in aerobic respiration?
They are co-enzymes, they both accept electrons and hydrogen derived from intermediates that form during glucose breakdown.
Is oyxgen required for aerobic respiration to occur?
Yes, it is required.
Why is it necessary to regenerate co-enzymes NAD?
For more glycolysis.
Does anaerobic release of energy require oxygen?
No it does not require or use it.
What is the first stage of fermentation pathways?
How much ATP is produced in this stage?
Two ATP.
How much NADH is formed?
After the first stage of fermentation the final stage can vary depending on the organism involved. What were the 2 different types of final stages discussed in class?
Alcoholic and Lactate.
What were the end products of the two different types of end stages of fermentation?
Alcohol forms ethyl alcohol, or ethanol. Lactate forms acids, giving food sour tastes.
Was NADH recycled to NAD in each of the different cycles of Fermentation?
Yes, they were recycled.
Where do these fermentation process happen?
Bacteria, yeasts, food, etc.