20 terms

AP bio Intro chem

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potential energy
The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors.
kinetic energy
Energy that an object has due to its motion
neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge located outside of the nucleus
atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic weight
The weight average of the atomic masses of the different isotopes of an element (protons + neutrons)
isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons (different atomic weights)
ion
A particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative, by losing or gaining an electron respectively)
valence
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
structural formula
shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms in a molecule
molecular formula
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which a METAL atom loses an electron to form a positive cation and a NONMETAL atom gains an electron to form a negative anion
polar
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally due to one atom having a greater electronegativity than the other.
nonploar
In a covalent bond the electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have a similar electronegativity.
cation
A positively charged ion
anion
A negatively charged ion
hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
electronegativity
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
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