50 terms

SOC 1010 - Final Review - Test #3

The definition of education is --- Education refers to the formal process of instruction
in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner.
In 1848, Horace Mann, often referred to as the "father of public education," wrote that education is:
the great equalizer.
College campuses provide an environment for cultural innovation by:
providing a context for experimentation; requiring faculty to publish articles and books; hosting students from around the world; correct all of the above
In the United States, schoolchildren are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as:
the hidden curriculum.
The impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievements is known as:
the teacher-expectancy effect.
The "correspondence principle" refers to the tendency of:
schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to prepare students for the types of jobs typically held by members of their class.
Which of the following statements about the institution of education is true?
Ideally, the institution selects those with ability and trains them for positions that require greater skill or knowledge; Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation; In reality, the institution denies most disadvantaged children the same opportunities as children of the affluent; all of the above
correct all of the above
The _______________ is the idea that religion has a unique content or substance relating to the sacred that separates it from other forms of knowledge and belief.
substantive definition of religion
The concept of the "sacred" encompasses:
elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, or fear.
Émile Durkheim's approach to religion is also known as:
the functionalist definition of religion.
A denomination is a:
large, organized religion that is not officially linked with the state or government.
Members of a religious group think that God meant for people 'to be fruitful and multiply'; therefore, they permit men to have several wives at one time. This is an example of a religious:
A new religious movement or cult is:
generally a small, alternative faith community that represents either a new religion or a major innovation in an existing faith.
Karl Marx suggested that religion
helps perpetuate patterns of social inequality; serves as an opiate; plays an important role in propping up the existing social structure; All of the answers are correct.
In the article "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism", Max Weber's main argument is _________
religion as a social institution can impact the change of other social institutions, such as economy.
The conclusion of the article "Religion and Society of Gods and Demons" by Steven P. Dandaneau is that
Marx, Weber and Durkheim were not religious so that they could objectively study religion.
In Mary Crow Dog's article, "Civilize Them with a Stick", it is a story of how the U.S. government use education to assimilate ____
Native American children.
The theoretical argument(s) underlies the article "Still Separate, Still Unequal: American's Educational Apartheid", is (are)
American educational system is still racially based; American educational system is still social class based; American educational system is still geographically based; All of the above.
The main idea of " 'Bad Boys' Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity" by Ann Ferguson is that besides other things, school is a place where it reproduces racial and gender stereotypes.
Which of the following terms refers to "power" that has been institutionalized and is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised?
Which of the following sociologists created a classification system of authority that distinguishes between traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic authority?
Max Weber
In the United States, there is a presidential election every four years. After the election, nearly half the population readily accepts the leadership of the person for whom they did not vote. This is an example of:
rational-legal authority.
Which group has historically had particularly low voter turnout?
young adults; members of racial and ethnic minorities; the poor; All of the answers are correct.
As described by C. Wright Mills, the "power elite" is
a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States; all holders of statewide and national office in the United States; the "old money" families who control the American economy. All of the answers are correct
correct All of the answers are correct.
What are the two basic types of economic systems that distinguish contemporary societies?
capitalism and socialism
In the book The Jungle, Upton Sinclair describes the meatpacking industry in Chicago at the beginning of the 20th century. The unregulated meatpacking companies had questionable health and safety standards, and they exploited their employees unmercifully. Sinclair was discussing a stage of economic development known as:
laissez-faire capitalism.
Socialism is defined as:
an economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned.
A dress manufacturer closes a factory in South Carolina and moves the factory to Malaysia, where labor costs are lower. This is an example of:
A computer software manufacturer creates a product that all computers are required to use. The exclusive product allows the manufacturer to dictate prices, standards of quality, and product availability. This manufacturer would be an example of a (an):
In the article "Manifesto of the Communist Party", Marx and Engels blamed _________ as the source of social and economic inequality in a society.
Robin Leidner's article "Over the Counter: McDonald's" is a good illustration of _______
Deskilling; routinization of work. Both B and C
The main argument is C. Wright Mills article "The Power Elite' is that American politics is controlled by a group of elites.
The article "Dollars and Votes: How Business Campaign Contributions Subvert Democracy" is a good application of _______, according to our textbook.
Mill's model.
Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?
Which of the following statements about slavery is true?
It is considered the most extreme form of social inequality.
Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern United States in the pre-civil rights era, an African American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to the status of all of the White members of the community. This would be an example of a (an):
caste system.
Which of the following refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one position of society's stratification system to another?
social mobility
A stratification system that implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person's achieved status is referred to as a (an):
open stratification system.
A woman who was born and raised in a poor family becomes a regional supervisor for the U.S. Postal Service. She has experienced:
intergenerational mobility.
In Karl Marx's view, a worker who identifies with the wealthy and believes that she can achieve great wealth through hard work is likely to have developed a:
false consciousness.
Which of the following did Max Weber suggest were analytically distinct components of stratification?
class, status, and party
Our tastes, knowledge, attitudes, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others is known as:
cultural capital.
The top 5 percent of U.S. households earn _______ of the nation's total income.
over 20 percent
In the five-class model sociologists commonly use to describe the U.S. class system, which social class contains the smallest portion of the population?
upper class
Karl Marx argued that social, economic, and political inequalities are dependent on:
the class structure of society.
What percentage of the total available wealth did the poorest 50% of people in the United States own in 2009?
2.5 percent
College students who come from families with higher incomes are ___________ to graduate from college than students from lower-income families.
much more likely
The main idea in "One World under Business" by Charles Derber is that a global power elite as transnational companies dominate government agendas and expand their business into larger global financial markets.
In the article "The Hidden Cost of Being African American", Thomas Shapiro argues that, in terms of economic inequality, _______
wealth perpetuates inequality.
The conclusion we can get from article "Nickel-and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America" is that
it is impossible for the working poor to earn enough money.; it is better off to get social welfare than working under the current system.
correct both A and C.