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Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 16

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Evolution
The process which things change over time
Biological Evolution
Modern Organism evolved over long periods of time through decent form common ancestors
Where was Darwin's journey to, and what was he sailing on?
the HMS beagle's five year voyage to South America
What three patterns of biodiversity did Darwin Note on his voyage?
species vary globally, species vary locally, and species vary over time
what specifically did Darwin note about the varying of species globally
different, ecologically similar, animal species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar habitats around the globe
what specifically did Darwin note about the varying of species locally?
Different, yet related, animal species often occupy different habitats within a local area
What did darwin find to help prove that species vary over time, and what did that prove specifically?
fossils, and that some fossils of extinct animals are similar to living species
In what two ways did an understanding of geology help influence Darwin?
He understood that the earth is constantly changing slowly, over long periods of time
How did Hutton contribute to Darwin's theory of evolution?
Earth had enough time for earth to evolve because earth was very old, and geological processes formed the earth's geological features over a long period of time
How did Lyell contribute to Darwin's theory of evolution?
He came up with uniformitarianism: the geological processes we see today are the ones that shaped the earth, and since the earth/life is changing, organisms will too
How did Lamarck contribute to Darwin's theory of evolution?
He said that species aren't fixed, evolution is explained through natural processes, there is a link between an organism's environment and it's body structures
How did Lamarck propose species changed over time?
BY selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits in their lifetimes, these traits could be passed to their offspring and over time this led to change in species.
How did Lamarck pave the way for later biologists?
Lamarck was the first to develop a scientific theory of evolution and realize organisms adapt to their environment
Which of Lamarck's ideas were true, and which were false?
He was right that species are not fixed, evolution comes through natural processes, and organisms are linked to their environment, but he was wrong when saying acquired traits can be passed to offspring, and that organisms have an inborn drive to be perfect
What caused thomas malthus to form his theory about population growth?
human birth rate was higher than death rate
which of the following is an idea attributed to malthus?
If human population grew unchecked, there wouldnt be enough living space and food for everyone
Malthus's idea led darwin to conclude that..
many more organism are born than will survive and reproduce
How do humans affect artificial selection? What role does nature play?
Nature provides the variation in organisms, and humans choose the trait they like and breed ones with the trait
What is another name for artificial selection
selective breeding
what is struggle for existence
competition for limited resources
what is adaptation
organisms ability to survive and reproduce in it's environment
what is fitness and how does it relate to an organism's change of survival and reproduction?
if one has high fitness it will do well, and if one doesnt, it wont
what does natural selection act on?
inherited traits
what is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's change of survival considered?
an adaptation
what does natural selection depend on
the ability of organisms to reproduce (leave descendants)
where did organisms all descend from
ancestors who survived and reproduced
what does common descent suggest
all species, living and extinct, are related
what is descent with modification
the principle that living species descend with changes, from other species over time
what does the fossil record provide
physical evidence of descent with modification over
long periods of time
biogeography
study of where organisms live now and where they and their ancestors lived in the past
how does geographic distribution of species today relate to their evolutionary history
patterns in the distribution of living and fossil species tell us how modern organisms evolved from their ancestors
what is a homologous protein found in almost all living cells
cytochrome c
what is similar in all organisms genetic code
DNA and RNA
What are HOX genes
they help determine the head to tail axis in embryonic development, and there are found in almost all multicellular organism
what happens when there are minor changes in an organism's genome?
there are dramatic structural changes
why are organisms who are closely related in different habitats?
natural selection in different yet close, places makes different, but closely related species
why are organisms who are distantly related in similar habitats
they evolved from different species but similar selection pressures caused them to develop similar adaptations
what did the grants document show
natural selection takes place in wild finch populations often, and sometimes rapidly and that competition and environmental change drive natural selection. it also shows variation within a species increases the likelihood of the species adapting to and during environmental change
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