Chapter 28: World War II
Terms in this set (69)
Anschluss (March 1938)
The union of
; directly violated the
Treaty of Versailles
Was based on the assumption that Germany had real grievances and that Hitler's goals were limited and acceptable. Also because people feared war. The British, specifically, believed that the last world war was an arms race and were reluctant to rearm. Chamberlain was very guilty of committing this.
Nazi death camp located in
. Was considered one of the most infamous of all the death camps, but is today a memorial site for the Holocaust.
Replaced Churchill as Prime Minister. Was leader of the Labour Party.
Battle of Britain (July-October 1940)
Major air battle between Germany and Britain. Germany bombs fighter planes and airfields using the Luftwaffe, or German air force. In revenge for British bombing raids on German cities, the Luftwaffe starts to bomb London consistently. Did not destroy British morale. Additionally, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) is able to defend the British Isles and destroyed more than twice as many enemy planes as they had lost. Hitler lost the battle and had to abandon plans for invasion.
Battle of Midway Island
A naval and air battle fought in World War II in which planes from American aircraft carriers blunted another assault on Hawaii and did enough damage to halt the Japanese advance. Was a major turning point in the war against Japan.
Battle of Stalingrad
(1942) World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of this city on the Volga River. Russians lose more men than Americans lost in the whole war. Hitler loses his whole army because he would not listen to his generals and refused to retreat. Germany's defeat marked turning point of the Russian campaign. Thereafter, the Americans provided material help. An increase in Russian production allows the Soviet Union to gain and keep offensive.
Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945)
Was Germany's last major offensive on the Western Front. Germany launched a counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg attempted to push forward into the allied line. After their defeat in this battle, Germany's resistance crumbled.
Included the leaders from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States during World War II.
"Lightning warfare", a new style of attack used by the Germans that employed fast-moving, massed armored columns supported by airpower. This type of attack was used when the Germans invaded Poland.
Prime Minister of Britain during Hitler's rule. Attends Munich conference and appeases Hitler, allowing Hitler to take over the Sudetenland. Hitler occupies Prague, disgracing Britain's appeasement.
Replaces Chamberlain as PM of Britain in May of 1940. Was a critic of Hitler, the Nazis, and appeasement. Would refuse to compromise with Hitler. Developed a close relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, providing for American assistance during the time Germany attacked Britain.
D-day (June 6, 1944)
Allied forces of America, Britain and Canada launch an amphibious (from sea to land) assault on the Normandy coast of France. France is then liberated from German control after this.
Was the propaganda minister for the Nazis. Used radio and films to boost the Nazi cause. Broadcast exaggerated claims of Nazi victories throughout the war.
Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender after the atomic bombardments of the US, on the condition that Japan retain its empire.
called for the expulsion of the entire Jewish race.
Led the Falangists, Spanish Fascists, in Spain. Despite help from Germany and Italy during the Spanish Civil War, he would not join his fascist allies during WWII, and would keep Spain neutral.
Great Patriotic War
Was a phrase used by the Soviet Union leaders to encourage resistance to German aggression. Also was the struggle against the Germans itself. The actual war killed 16 million Russians.
painting by Pablo Picasso that depicts the Spanish Civil War. Commemorates the bombing of this Spanish Bosque village by German planes.
Wanted to bring all the Germans together into a single nation. On the eve of the Second World War, he violates the provisions of Versailles by: rearming Germany, uniting Germany and Austria, rearming the Rhineland. Takes Sudetenland from Czechs, and promises not to take the rest of the Czech territory but does it anyway when he occupies Prague. Divides Poland among himself and Stalin. Despite the non-aggression pact, plans to invade Russia anyway (Operation Barbarossa).
aka the "Final Solution". Wipes out 6 million Jews. Although most of the destruction occurs in Eastern Europe and Russia, Jews were also deported from France, the Netherlands, Italy, and Belgium.
After the Holocaust, __% of the 2,625,000 Jews living in Poland die.
WWII strategy the American used of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan, islands with major bases and strategic sites for the enemy supply line.
League of Nations
Japan and Germany withdraw from this during World War II. Soviet Union is the only nation to get expelled from this because it attacks Finland.
aka "living space"; was supposedly what the new Germany needed. Would be taken from the Slavs.
Territory that Japan occupies.
Munich Agreement (Conference) (September 29, 1938)
Germany, Italy, France, and Britain meet here. The nations appease Germany and Hitler gets almost everything he asked for, including Sudetenland. Russia was left out of this and was resentful about it.
Hitler's plan for organizing Europe into a single political and economic system ruled by Germany. Would establish colonies of Germans in Poland and Russia, and would make all the local people do slave labor. Would drive Russians back into Central Asia and Siberia while Germans settle in previous Russian territory. Plan also included Germanizing people from Scandinavia, Netherlands, Switzerland.
Operation Barbarossa (June 11, 1941)
Was code name for the invasion of Russia by Germany, and was aimed to destroy Russia before winter could set in. Mussolini's invasion of the British colony of Egypt and Greece would divert Hitler's attention to the Balkans and Africa. This would cause a delay of six weeks. Despite killing a majority of the Russian troops, destroying nearly all of the 15,000 Russian tanks and 2,000 planes, the Germans couldn't deliver the final blow. Hitler didn't capture Moscow before winter like his General staff wanted, and decided to go south. Winter devastated his troops. Russian counterattacked and Germany retreated.
Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)
Japan surprise-bombs this chief American naval base in the Pacific, prompting the US to enter WWII. Destroyed many American fleets and airplanes. Four days later, Germany and Italy declare war on the US.
Headed the French Vichy government. Signed an armistice with Hitler. Set up a dictatorial regime in Vichy, and collaborated with the Germans in hopes of preserving autonomy.
Phony War (Sitzkrieg)
While Hitler and Stalin are invading Poland and the Baltic states, it is relatively quiet on the western front. The French stay behind their Maginot line while the British rearm, and the British navy blockades Germany. This stillness ends in the spring of 1940 when Hitler invades Denmark and Norway, enabling him to get his air and naval bases closer to Britain.
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman replaced Roosevelt, and Clement Attlee had replaced Churchill. Allies agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones. A Council of Foreign ministers was established to draft peace treaties for Germany's allies. Disagreements and dissatisfaction between the Soviet Union and US over the peace treaty between US and Japan would lead to the Cold War.
Hitler rearms this area regardless of the terms of the Versailles Treaty and the Locarno Agreement.
Rome-Berlin Axis Pact (1936)
Germany and Italy form this pact after the Spanish Civil War.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
He and Churchill corresponded before the US went into the war, and America was able to supply Britain with warships and military supplies.
Spanish Civil War (1936-9)
Made the line dividing Fascists side and Western Democratic side in Europe more clear. After the Falangists, Spanish fascists, lose the election, they lead an army against the republic. Germany and Italy support them, which brought Germany and Italy closer together. Fascists win the war due to appeasement from France and Britain.
Formed a non-aggression pact with Hitler in August 1939, and allowed Russia and Germany to divide Poland among themselves. The Pact ultimately failed to sustain itself, and he ended up claiming it allowed the USSR an extra year and a half to prepare for war. Made peace with the Russian Orthodox Church to increase support for himself in Russia and in Eastern Europe. Supported partisan forces in the German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union to aggravate the Germans and to remind the peasants of their ties to the government. The war consolidated his power more than his social and political policies had in the 1930s.
Was an area of Czech security. Riots in this region lead to German intervention. Germany wants this region. Chamberlain and Daladier insist the Czechs give this area up to the Germans. After the Munich Conference, this region belongs to the Germans, and Hitler promises to spare the rest of Czechoslovakia, but soon invades Poland and Hungary to get territory from it. Then, Hitler invades Prague and ends the Czech state.
Tehran Conference (November-December 1943)
First meeting of the Big Three leaders. Stalin wanted to retain Pact with Hitler and dismember Germany. Most important decision made was the choosing of Europe's west coast as the main point of attack instead of the Mediterranean. This would mean that the Soviets would occupy Eastern Europe and control its destiny.
Harry S. Truman
US president that came into office after Roosevelt died. Accepted Japanese peace conditions of allowing Japan to retain its emperor despite the Allies' wishes of an unconditional surrender by Japan.
Idea that enemy nations (Germany and Japan) would have to accept whatever peace terms the Allies dictated.
what Hitler considered Slavs; subhuman creatures like beasts who need not be treated as people.
After the Germans invade France, France signs an armistice, forcing France to rule Southern France from this resort city. Its government collaborated closely with the Germans to preserve autonomy. Was headed by the dictatorial regime of Marshal Petain. The Roman Catholic clergy gained status under the rule of this government. Set up religious instruction in schools, and increased financial support for Catholic schools. Made divorce difficult. Encouraged intense nationalism. Was anti-Third Republic and anti-democratic.
Yalta Conference (February 1945)
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin meet to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into post-war zones of occupation. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula, as well as Korea and Manchuria.
After the war, the __________ emerged as a world power second only to the United States.
League of Nations, Treaty of Versailles
Repudiation of Disarmament:
1. Germany withdraws from ______________ (October 1933)
2. Hitler renounces the disarmament provisions of the ___________ (March 1935)
Under the Treaty of Versailles, this region was put under the control of the League of Nations. In January 1935, a plebiscite was held with 90% of the voting choosing to go to Germany rather than to remain with France.
The Treaty of Versailles called for the Allied occupation of the Rhineland until 1935. The Allies ended up withdrawing in ____ and Germany reoccupies it in ____.
By March 1939, ______________ is occupied by Germany.
Established by the Treaty of Versailles, it provided Poland access to the Black Sea. It is seized by Germany in Sept. 1939.
The British adopted a policy of _____________ for all the following reasons:
1. guilt over the Versailles settlement
2. strong pacifist movement in Britain
3. belief that Hitler could be used to stop communism
The French adopted a policy of __________ because they felt impotent without British support.
The ____________ was the time between the fall of Poland and the invasion of Denmark and Norway by German troops (Oct. 1939 - Apr. 1940)
Hitler's biggest strategic mistake was the invasion of ______.
Wansee Conference (January 1942)
Was a meeting in Berlin to decide on a plan to completely eliminate all European Jews.
Managed to save almost its entire Jewish population (8000 Jews).
Battle of Stalingrad
Was the turning point in the European war. The total casualties for both sides was 1.7 to 2 million.
North African Campaign (November 1942 - May 1943)
US and UK fight Italy and Germany in North Africa. This is the first place the US will fight during WWII.
Prior to June 1944, most of the fighting against Germany in Europe was done by the ___________.
15, 15, 25
The casualties of WWII amounted to ___ million military deaths and ___ to ___ civilian deaths.
After the fall of France, Germany next turned its attention to ________.
American resistance to Japanese expansion became much stiffer after the 1941 Japanese occupation of __________.
Conditions in Germany changed rapidly when the German army failed to:
a. conquer Britain
b. subdue partisan forces in France
c. fully occupy Poland
d. quickly defeat the Soviet Union
e. subdue Scandinavia
For the mass of the British population:
a. the war was a welcome relief from the tensions of the 1930s
b. standard of living declined
c. war had little impact
d. war was an economic disaster
e. standard of living improved
The US and Britain agreed to open a second front in France in 1944 at the _______ Conference.
did very little
In response to Japan's invasion of Manchuria, the League of Nations _____________.
In response to Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, the League of Nations:
a. imposed crippling sanctions
b. sent troops into the region
c. did nothing
d. imposed weak sanctions that exempted oil from the embargo
e. forced Italy to pay reparations to Ethiopian refugees.