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FLUID BALANCE- Nutrition
Terms in this set (22)
How much does water make up of normal adults body size?
How long can a human live without food, and without water?
30-45 days without food but only 10-14 days without water
Why can't water be stored in the body?
water intake and output must be balanced to maintain health
Intracellular Fluid is what? It makes up what percent of total body fluids?
Contained within the cells
65% of total body fluids
Extracellular Fluid is what? It makes up what percent of total body fluid?
Contained outside of the cells
Found in the bloodstream (intravascular), between cells (interstitial), and in glandular secretions
35% of total body fluid
What are waters' vital functions?
Provides shape and rigidity to cells
Helps to regulate body temperature
Acts as lubricant
Cushions body tissues
Transports nutrients and waste products
Acts as a solvent-glucose, amino acids, minerals, proteins and other molecules dissolve in water
Provides source of trace minerals
Participates in chemical reactions that join small molecules together or break apart large ones, helps maintain acid base balance
Why is minimum intake of water required?
1)For cell function
2)As solution through which waste products of body are excreted in urine
What is adequate intake water recommendation for men and women?
13 cups men; 9 cups women per day
This amount is in addition to fluids from foods consumed such as fruits and vegetables
Minimum amount needed is about 4 cups, higher amounts are optimum
What is the average I&O per 24 hours?
2500 mL per 24 hours
What are sources of water?
Best source is drinking water
Other fluids: often contain other nutrients
Milk, fruit juice and soup
Some fruits and vegetables are 85%-95% water
Watermelon, grapes, oranges, lettuce, tomatoes and zucchini
Coffee, tea, and alcohol act as diuretics even though they contain water
Soft drinks add fluid, but also contain solutes
What is the total output fluid? How much is excreted as Urine? Where is the other total output going to?
Total output: 2500-3000 ml per day
1500ml/day is excreted as urine
Other losses can be:
Sensible losses which are losses that can be measured
Urination, defecation, wound drainage
Insensible losses which are losses that cannot be measured or seen
Evaporation from the skin, respiration
What is Osmosis? What is Diffusion? What is Active Transport? What is Filtration?
solvent (water) movement, solute movement, Transport-requires carrier protien, Filtering
What are things we look at when monitoring Fluid Status?
Accurate measurement of intake and output
What do we measure?
What do we expect to see?
What are the types of Fluid Volume Deficits and what are they caused by?
Types of Fluid Volume Deficits:
Hypovolemia: low ECF volume
Dehydration: deficit in both ECF and ICF
Inadequate fluid intake
Fluid loss in excess of fluid intake
Translocation of large volumes of intravascular fluid to interstitial compartment
What are some of the causes of fluid volume deficit?
Fever and sweating
Exercise and sweating
Environmental heat and humidity
What are the signs and symptoms of Fluid Volume Deficit?
Poor skin turgor-decreased elasticity
Dry mucous membranes
Decreased blood pressure, increased HR
What is Treatment of Fluid Volume Deficit?
Treat cause of hypovolemia
Increase oral intake
Administer IV fluid replacements
Control fluid losses
What are the Fluid Volume Excess'?
Hypervolemia: higher-than-normal volume of fluid in intravascular compartment (increased blood volume)
Edema: excess fluid distributed to interstitial space (often due to increased sodium)
May lead to circulatory overload and compromised heart function
What are the causes of Fluid Volume Excess?
Rapid administration of IV fluids or blood
Administration of albumin
Excessive intake of sodium
What are the treatments of Fluid Volume Excess?
Treat disorder contributing to increased fluid volume
Restrict oral fluids
Reduce salt consumption
Discontinue IV fluid infusions or reduce infusing volume
Administer drugs that promote urine elimination
What is Third Spacing?
Movement of intravascular fluid to nonvascular fluid compartments where it becomes trapped and is useless
Commonly associated with liver disease
Decreased albumin and ascities
Also occurs with kidney disease, peritonitis, burns and allergic reactions
Can lead to hypotension and shock due to decreased intravascular fluid
What is Treatment of Third Spacing?
Restore circulatory volume
Close monitoring for circulatory overload
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