51 terms

Respiratory System

Language of Medicine Chapter 12 Respiratory System Chapter 15 Step by Step Respiratory System Language of Medicine Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune System and Step by Step Medical Coding Chapter 17 Hemic Lymphatic Mediastinum and Diaphragm
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Pleurodynia
Pain of the pleura.
Atelectasis
Colapex lung expand of lung incomplete expansion of alveoli. In atelectasis, the
bronchioles and alveoli (pulmonary parenchyma) resemble a collapsed balloon. Common causes of atelectasis include poor inspiratory effort after surgery, blockage of a ronchus or smaller bronchial tube y secretions, tumor, and chest wounds that permit air, fluid, or blood to accumulate in the pleural cavity. Acute atelectasis requires removal of the underlying cause (tumor, foreign, body, mucous plug) and therapy to open airways. Respiration also can be limited by pain.
Tonsiliectomy
Removal of tonsils.
Stridor
Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx. Common causes of stridor include throat abscess, airway injury, croup, allergic reaction, or epiglotitis and laryngitis.
Wheezes
Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing. Wheezes are heard when air is forced through narrowed or obstructed airways. Patients with asthma commonly experience wheezing as bronchi narrow and tighten.
Croup
Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor. The most common causative agents are influenza viruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RVS).
Diphtheria
Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium). Inflammation occurs, and a leathery, opaque membrane (Greek dipthera, leather membrane) forms in the pharynx and trachea.
Epistaxis
Nosebleed. Epistaxis is a Greek word meaning a dropping. It commonly results from irritation of nasal mucous membranes, trauma, vitamin K deficiency, clotting abnormalities, or hypertension.
Pertussis
Whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is characterized by paroxysmal (violent, sudden) spams of coughing that ends in a loud "whooping " inspiration.
Asthma
Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production. Associated signs and symptoms of asthma are dyspnea, wheezing and cough etiology can involve allergy or infection.
Bronchiectasis
Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection. This condition is caused by chronic infection with loss of elasticity of the bronchi. Secretions puddle and do not drain normally. Signs and symptoms are cough, fever, and expectoration of foul-smelling, purulent (pus-containing ) sputum. Treatment is palliative (noncurative) and includes anttibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, respiratory therapy, and surgical resection if other therapies are not effective.
Chronic bronchitis
Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection and cigarette smoking etiologic factors. Signs and symptoms include excessive secretion of often infected mucus, a productive cough, and obstruction of respiratory passages. Chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema (lung disease in which air exchange at the alveoli is severely impaired) are components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally. The exocrine glands affected are the pancreas (insufficient Secretion of enzymes resulting in poor growth), sweat glands (abnormal salt production),and epithelium (lining cells) of the respiratory tract. Chronic airway obstruction, infection, bronchiectasis, and respiratory failure are the end result. Therapy includes replacement of pancreatic enzymes and treatment of pulmonary obstruction and infection.
Emphysema
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
Anthracosis
Coal dust accumulation in the lungs
Anthracosis
Coal dust accumulation in the lungs
Bacilli (singular; Bacillus)
Rod-shape bacteria (cause of tuberculosis).
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(COPD)
Chronic condition o persistent obstruction o air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs. COPD
is caused by smoking, air pollution, chronic infection, and in a minority of cases, asthma. Patients with predominant chronic bronchitis COPD are referred to as "blue bloaters" (cyanotic,stocky build), wheres those with predominant emphysema are called "pink puffers" (short of breath, but with near-normal blood oxygen levels, and no change in skin color).
CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA)
Is the combination o CT scanning and angiography. It is useful to examine the pulmonary circulation in the diagnosis of a pulmonary embolism.
Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) Scan
Detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection o a radioisotope or
inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon).
Endotracheal Intubation
Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway.
Thoracentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
Throracotomy
Large surgical incision of the chest.
Tracheostomy
Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck. Is the most common procedure reported with codes from the incision category.
Tuberculin Test
Determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin reaction (Examples are the Heaf test and the tine test, using purified protein derivative (PPD) applied with multiple punctures of the skin).
BAL
Bronchioalveolar lavage.
Many of the codes in the nose subheading are
Reported by physicians who specialize in treating conditions of the noses (otorhinolaryngologist; ear, nose, and throat specialist), but there are also many codes in the subheading that are more widely used. For example, it is in the nose subheading that you will located codes for commonly performed office.
External Approach
If a nasal abscess is approached from the outside of the nose. You would assign a code from the Integumentary System subsection.
Internal Approach
But if the approach is from the inside of the nose. You would assign a code from the Respiratory System subsection.
Laryngotomy
Is an incision that is made over the larynx (thyrotomy) to expose the larynx to view.
Intubation
Is the establishment o an airway. The intubation represented in 31500 is provided on an emergency basis at such times as the patient experiences respiratory failure or the occurrence of an inadequate airway.
Tracheoplasty
Involve the surgical repair of a damaged trachea. The repair may involve reconstruction of the trachea by the use of grafts or splints formed from cartilage taken from other areas of the body or y the use of prostheses.
Acquired Immunity
Production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
Adenoids
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
Axillary nodes
Lymph nodes in the armpit (underarm).
B cell (B lymphocyte)
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secret antibodies. The B refers to the bursa of Fabricius, an organ in birds in which B cell differentiation and growth were first note to occur.
Cytokines
T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells (CD8+ cell or T8 cell).
Dendritic Cell
Specialized macrophage that digest foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction.
Helper T cell
Lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production; also called CD4+ cell or T4 cell.
Thoracic Duct
Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; It empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest.
Thymus Gland
Organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.
Tonsils
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx.
Toxin
Poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants.
Vaccination
Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection. The term comes from the Latin vacca, cow- the first inoculations were given with organisms that caused the disease cowpox to produce immunity to smallpox.
Vaccine
Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease.
Syprahyoid Neck Dissection
Is a variation of the modified radical neck dissection and is reported with 38700
The Mediastinum and Diaphragm
Subsection codes are(3900-39499) of the CPT.
Ablation
Removal by cutting
Cauterization
Destruction of tissue by burning.
Drainage
Free flow or with withdrawal of fluids.
Lavage
Washing out an organ.
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