80 terms

History !301 Test 3


Terms in this set (...)

Describe the colonial population after the Seven Year's War
The population continued to grow. In 1776 approx. 2.5 million people, black and white
were living in 13 mainland colonies. Nearly 60% of the American people were under age
Discuss King George III's governing style.
He replaced the WHIGS (set policies and controlled patronage) with his friend Earl of
Bute as chief minister who had no ties to the House of Commons. George was attempting
to reestablish a personal Stuart monarchy free from traditional constitutional restraints.
Name the concept that was at the heart of the Imperial/colonial struggle
No taxation without representation.
Explain the differences between British & colonial views on representation
a. British- the members of parliament represented the political interests of everyone in Great
Britain. Virtual representation.
b. Colonial-The only representatives the Americans recognized as legitimate were those actually
chosen by the people for whom they sPolke. As John Adams insisted, a representative
assembly should mirror its constituents (think, feel, reason and act like them)
Discuss the outstanding legacy of the Seven Year's War
The seven years' war saddled Great Britain with a national debt so huge that more than
half the annual national budget went to pay the interest on it. George III insisted on keeping
the supposedly to protect Indians from predatory frontiersmen and to preserve order in
the newly conquered territories of Florida and Quebec. This fueled their budget crisis even
List George Grenville's legislative program
Raise money from the colonist, legislation, sugar act, stamp act.
Describe colonial reaction to the Stamp Act
Sales tax. People had to buy stamps for things they wanted to sell. Elite reaction is more intense, common level - strong reaction mass, protest afraid of creating unemployment boycotts, sons of liberty formed. Burned down stamp act distributer houses. Acts get repealed. Went into effect on November 1,
Describe the intent & results of the Townshend Program
Charles Townsend-A way to obtain revenue from the Americans. His scheme turned out to
be a grab bag of duties on American imports of paper, glass, paint, tea and lead, which collectively
were known as the Townshend revenue Acts (June-July 1767) He hoped to generate
sufficient funds to pay the salaries of royal governors and other imperial officers,
thus freeing them from dependence on the colonial assemblies. Protested "rituals of nonconsumption."
Describe the origins & results of the Boston Massacre.
a. In part to save money and in part to intimidate colonial trouble makers, the ministry transferred
four thousand regular troops from Nova Scotia and Ireland to Boston.
b. March 5, 1770- Young boys and street toughs threw rocks and snowballs at soldiers in a
small, isolated patrol outside the offices of the hated customs commissioners in King
Street. The mob grew and became more threatening, the soldiers panicked and in confusion
the troops fired, leaving five Americans dead.
taxes removed-except tea
Describe the origins & results of the Boston Tea Party
Parliament eliminated the duties paid in England. December 16, 1773-Gov. Hutchinson
of Boston would not allow vessels to return to England nor did the local patriots allow
them to unload leaving them to stay at the harbor until the colonist made a choice. In the
night a group of men disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the ships and pitched 340
chests of tea over the side.
Describe the American response to the Intolerable Acts.
Committees endorsed a call for a Continental Congress, a gathering of fifty five elected
delegates from twelve colonies (none from Georgia only word of their support). This first
Continental Congress convened September 5 including John Adams, Samuel Adams,
Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Christopher Gadsden, and George Washington.
Same group created and Association and authorized a vast network of local committees to
enforce nonimportation.
Name the location of the first battle of the American Revolution
Lexington on April 19, 1775. Between Lexington Militia (farmers and boys) and redcoats
(British soldiers).
Discuss the accomplishments of the Second Continental Congress
Lead by George Washington. Thomas Paine (1737-1809) produced Common Sense, an
essay that became an instant best seller. Common Sense, systematically stripped kingship
of historical and theological justification. Paine's greatest contribution to the revolutionary
cause was persuading ordinary folk to sever their ties with Great Britain.
List the advantages & disadvantages of both the Americans & British in the Revolution.
Advantages of British Army: population 4x's of former colonies, strong manufacturing
base, well trained army supplemented by thousands of German troops (Hessians), Navy,
and officers with battlefield experience. Cons-Transport men and supplies across the atlantic,
America was too vast to be conquered by conventional army methods and did not
appreciated Americans' commitment to a political ideology. (Ex: drafting of the army)
Explain Washington's military strategy in the American Revolution
Organized a well trained field army, avoided general action and was cautious. Offered
African americans freedom in exchange to fight in war.
Describe the British military strategy in 1776.
Parliament authorized sending more than fifty thousand troops to the mainland colonies,
and after evacuating Boston, the British forces stormed ashore at staten Island in New
Your Harbor on July 3, 1776. Sir William Howe believed he could cut the New
Englanders off from the rest of America. He also had the support of the british navy with
his brother in command.
Describe the British military strategy in 1777
Lord George Germain strategized that a large filed army would somehow maneuver
Washington's Continental troops into a decisive battle in which the British would enjoy a
clear advantage.
Describe the short-term & long-term results of the Battle of Saratoga
French had to recognize the Independence of the United States. Treaty of Alliance-in the
event that France and England went to war the French agreed to reject either truce or
peace with great Britain until the independence of the United States shall have been formally
or tactitly assured by the treaty or treaties that shall terminate the war.
Evaluate the British military southern strategy
Winning the war lay in southern colonies, a region largely untouched in the early years of
fighting. The Southern strategy devised by Germain and Clinton in 1779 turned the war
into a bitter guerrilla conflict which opened a Pandora's Box of uncontrollable partisan
List the results of the Treaty of Paris of 1783
September 3, 1783-guaranteed US independence and transferred all the territory east of
the Mississippi river, except Spanish Florida, to the new republic. The treaty established
generous boundaries on the north and south and gave the Americans important fishing
rights in the N. Atlantic. Congress helped British merchants collect debts and compensate
loyalists for lands confiscated. Became effective when France and Great Britain reached
an agreement.
Name the American political & social reforms in 1783
a. Abolition of certain laws >> help to create & maintain specific class people
b. Right of land owner to entail their properties: Limiting the right of future folk to sale the
c. Laws properties requirement for voting
d. Creation of voting district
e. Movement of state capital Westward
f. AN increase in the separation of Church & state
1) a move to abolish inheritances laws
• crate and maintain a class
• let the land-owner deiced who got the land..
2) law property requirements
3) New districts were formed for settlers
4) more sepration of church and state, but with cause
- getting rid of state supported churches
Explain the position of African Americans in 1783.
a. North 1800
i. slavery is headed for extinction
ii. has a gradual emancipation
iii. systematic discrimination becomes very strong
b. South
a. No southern leader are defending slavery
b. sees this as a positive good
c. slavery continues
d. women rights doesn't increase dramatically
Describe the new state constitutions written during & after the Revolution.
1. written documents
2. contain protections for natural rights
◦ putting bill of rights in constitution
3 tend to be a reduction of power to the governor
4 increase the power to the legislator
5 establishes for a procurement to write documents
◦ writings and drafts were written by special conventions
◦ adapting / ratifying were decide by the ppl
Explain the purpose & structure of the Articles of Confederation
• purposes
◦ handle Indian
◦ foreign allies
◦ create a central govt.
• structure of goverment
◦ a single legislating body
◦ each state would have 1 vote
◦ 9 states to act on anything
◦ no president
◦ no power of taxation
◦ any disagreement to the AoC would have to be discussed with all states and any changes whould have all the states agree.
Name the major obstacle to the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.
The disposition of lands, how the states would be disposed of after the war
Describe the accomplishments of the Northwest Ordinances of 1785 & 1787
• Land Ordinance
◦ establishes a process to layout townships
◦ Market public land
• Northwest Ordinance
◦ Govt.
■ one appointed governor
■ one secretary
■ three judges
◦ new process of becoming a state
■ 6000 pop could draft a Constitution in order to become a state
List the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
a. week federal goverment
b. inablity of congress to tax
c. couldnt pay vets or debt
d. couldnt deal with spain or remaining brits in amercia
e. unanemus consent of all states
f. inablitiy to regulate trade
Explain the events that led to the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
it was a reaction to Shay's Rebellion, which was a rebellion over taxes and debts. This was
a particularly violent rebellion. The rich saw this and thought that this could happen in
their state; and they didn't want that. They realized that the government was powerless to
do anything about it under the Articles of Confederation, and called for a stronger central
government. And hence the Philadelphia Convention to create the Constitution was called.
Describe the financial & social status of most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
55 men attended the convention from # states well educated, successful men
List the provisions of the Virginia Plan.
- James Madison
- father of the consitiution
- his goal is to restrain some of the state assembles
- some were going out of control
- the important thing was that he is going to set the terms of the debate
• 2 houses in legislative with propostional representation in each
• a president (executive branch)
• three branches of govt.
• said that it could veto laws
List the provisions of the New Jersey Plan.
• one house
• one vote
• the power to tax and regulate trade
• now proportional representaion
List the provisions of the Connecticut Plan
this was called the Great Compormise
◦ states would be equally represented
◦ lower house would be in propotional to the population
◦ lower house : all money bills would be to either raise or to spend money .it must originate in the lower house.
◦ would be a president
◦ 3/5 clause
■ each slave would be counted as 3/5th of a person
Explain the status of slaves within the Constitution.
3/5 clause
• special note
◦ slaves being counted as 3/5th is much worse as being counted at a whole
• congress had NO right to interfer with slave trade. before 1808
• slave owners had the right to recover escaped slaves, even if they were in a different state
Describe the position of the executive branch in the Constitution
President would be elected by an electoral college
◦ electors would be choosen by the state
◦ each state would have a number of elctors equal to the number sentors
and each representative
■ Purpose
■ a desire that the president wouldnt be elected by congress
◦ the guy with the most votes with the guy with the second most votes become
◦ pwer to veto legislation
◦ right to nominate judes
◦ commandor and chief of arm forces
Discuss how the Constitution was ratified
• state connections would vote
• it would take 9 votes
◦ specially elected by the ppl
• 1790 USA become its own country
Two groups form form this
• federalist: they stood for a confederation of states rather than for the creation of
a supreme national authority
• anti-federalist a misleading term that made their cause seem a rejection of the
very notion of a federation of the states
List the advantages of the Federalists.
• Better organist
• the writings of the Feds. were work of brilliance
• adoption of the name Federalist
• pined the name Anti- Federalist
◦ folks 2who are negative and just say no
• Speakers, were more polished, better prepared
Describe the beliefs of the Antifederalists
◦ suspicious of political power
◦ large republic
■ provided to many o0ppertunities of dis-rupture
■ EX: local votes couldn't know what is happening
◦ personal contact
■ large voting districts
■ only the rich would be able to vote
• local control instead of distant control
• this gave them too much power.
Describe in economic & geographic terms who supported the Constitution.
The federalists: they stood for a confederation of states rather than for the creation of a
supreme national authority
Name the major legacy of the Antifederalists
Name the major rights included under the Bill of Rights.
Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, press, speedy trial by impartial jury, bear arms,
prohibits unreasonable search and seizure
Explain George Washington's first responsibility as President.
a. make a new republic work
b. Political stability of the new republic
Describe how Congress expanded the executive branch in 1789.
a. Supreme court would consist of a chief justice and 5 justices
b. 13 districts court to trail cases
Describe how Congress expanded the judicial branch in 1789
a. 3 departments
i. War department
ii. Department of state
iii. Treasury
iv.including an Attorney General
1. gave legal advice
b. Supreme Court 6 judices
c. 13 district courts
Discuss the background & political beliefs of Alexander Hamilton
a. Background: Born as a hero in York town, lived in NY took to no state, more about reputation
than wealth. Born in the west indies, served in the army, Washington thought of him
as a son, Practiced law in New York, He was always concern about his reputation

b. Pol. Beliefs: Admired England, wanted close ties to great Britain feared & concerned
about democracy, he believed it should be as broadly interpreted constitution.
Discuss the background & political beliefs of Thomas Jefferson.
a. Background: Reflective, intellectual, Renaissance, He was a scientist, artist, architect, and
lawyer, loyal to his state ( Virgina )
b. Political Beliefs: Agriculture, most likely to not put their narrow minded self, but the country
first, optimistic, feared a strong central government (it destroys the liberty of the
people, followed the constitution very strictly
Describe the four parts of Alexander Hamilton's financial plan in his three Reports
a. Funding payment - federal govt would pay all of pt's
b. Assumption - Take over someone else
c. Have a national bank to point money, help raise money, bonds
d. The Us govt support manufacturers companies by enacting taxes on sthg coming in helping
the people that live here.
Name the opponents of the National Bank
a. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Explain how Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to accept the National Bank
He offered Virginia the capital if the agreed and voted on the assumption act
Name the portion of Hamilton's financial plan Congress defeated
Promoting manufacturing
Name the event that touched off debate on American foreign policy
War between the French and British
Explain the basic beliefs of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1791.
State rights, strict interpretations to the constitution, implied no powers, friendship with
the french, vigilante against commercial interference
Explain the basic beliefs of the Federalist Party in 1791.
Strong national govt, liberal govt power to the federalist, central economic planning,
maintenance of public order, closer ties to Great Britain
Describe George Washington's foreign policy in 1793
Neutrality, stay out of foreign wars, solve problems with Britain
Discuss the results of Jay's Treaty in 1794
a. Fire storm against the public protest
b. Arguments between pro-French and Pro-English separated the union
Describe the origins & results of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
a. Origin: Congress passed a tax on whiskey
i. Farmers in the West (Penn) thought it was unfair, because the federalists were imposing
their lifestyle
ii. Farmers began to protest, resulted in GW led 1500 militia men to pennsylvania
b. Results: republicans gain support from people who are upset with federalist action, and
accusations back and forth between fed and anti separated parties even further
Name the winners of the national election of 1796.
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
Describe the state of French-American relations in 1797.
a. French saw Jay's treat as an insult
b. French began seizing American ships
c. War breaks out between French and Americans
d. XYZ Affair
e. Adams sends 3 representatives to try and create treaty with France
Explain the real purpose of the Alien & Sedition Acts
a. Purpose: To silence political descent among democratic republican.
b. The president can deport any citizen of a nation if the USA was at war with their country.
c. The president can expel any foreigner.
d. Anybody who emigrate in USA, has to spend 14yrs to be a USA citizens
e. Sedition act: It would be a crime to make malicious statement
Describe the Democratic-Republican responses to the Alien & Sedition Acts.
a. They produce the Kentucky(Jefferson) & Virginia(Matterson) resolutions; those resolutions
state they could modify any law made by the federal govt.
b. Legislators of both states were apposed to the Acts
c. In both resolutions, the states have the right to nullify the laws of the Constitution
Name the winners of the national election of 1800
Jefferson (eDm) for President and Burr as VP
Describe the basic beliefs of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1801
a. Strict interpretation of the the Constitution
b. Peaceful foreign relations
c. Reduce the power / role of the federal government
Discuss the motivation & movement of westerners in the early 19th century
a. Movement: to the northwest
b. Motivation: find a good farm to stock out land for rich farming
c. Improve their lives
d. Get it to the market through water transportation
Discuss the goals of Jefferson's initial actions as president.
a. Reduce the size and cost of federal government
b. Repeal federalist legislation
c. Maintain international peace
Describe how Jefferson wished to cut the national debt.
a. Decrease expenses or Increase Taxes
b. Closes foreign embassies, reduces size of army, retied 50% of ships, he believed that a
large army was a sign that they were aggressive
Explain how Louisiana became part of the U.S.
a. The Louisiana territory went from the Mississippi to the Rocky mountains except for
i. Jefferson came into office wanting the US to acquire more land west of Mississippi
ii. Spain transferred the La territory to France
iii. France (governed by Napoleon) sends a large army to Hattie to put down slave
iv.Spain closes ports in Nola
v. Napoleon loses army because of illness
vi. France sells it to america for 15 mill
Discuss the goal of the Lewis & Clark Expedition
To map a route that would be part of a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; to trace the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase; and to claim the Oregon territory for the United States
Describe Jefferson's policy toward the Barbary pirates
a. Refused to pay tribute to the pirates
b. Naval blockage
c. by using the military is showing that Jefferson is a Hippocratic b.c he was interested in
keeping the peace but when fighting with pirates he uses the military
Describe Jefferson's policy toward the Federalist Party judges
a. Remove as many of them as possible
b. Denies them to office
Explain the results & significance of Marbury v Madison
a. Marbury was one of the very last "MID-NIGHT" appointments; except the final administrative
tasks wasn't filled out fully; he didn't become a judge; he took this to the Supreme
Court to argue his case
b. as a result.... The supreme court tells Marbury that the judicial branch, judges, have the authority
to withdraw legislation if its not constitutional
Describe the Democratic-Republican Party's attack on the Federalist judges.
a. Repeal the legislation that it created new judges
b. Start impeaching federal judges
c. Denies their right to freedom of speech
Discuss Aaron Burr's conspiracies
Burr's goal was to create an independent nation in the center of North America and/or the
Southwest and parts of Mexico. Burr's explanation: To take possession of, and farm,
40,000 acres (160 km²) in the Texas Territory leased to him by the Spanish
List the major legislation impacting the U.S. ecomomy during the British-French war
a. The embargo act
i. Ships could trade with other countries except one of the 2 (Britain or France
Describe Jefferson's reaction of the British-French war
He attempts to come to an understanding with the British and adopt a policy of peaceable
Describe Madison's reaction to the British-French war
a. Attempts to use legislation and regarding ships to face French and British ships to leave
american ships alone
b. ask congress for a declaration of war
c. the war of 1812 ( b/w British and the Americans )
Name the Indian Chief defeated by William Henry Harrison at Tippecanoe
Explain the causes of the War of 1812.
a. Interfering with american shipping
b. Indian resistance to the westward expansion
c. Pressure from the war hawk
Name the U.S. disadvantages on entering the War of 1812
a. Very unprepared
b. The majority (democrats) had a political ideology against taxing for the war or raising
c. New England refused to cooperate
i. Kept trading with Britain and France
Discuss in general terms the military campaigns (Canada, Chesapeake, & New Orleans) of
the War of 1812. (pp.201-202)
a. Canada
i. Was a draw
ii. Never advanced to Canada
iii. British attempts to go south
b. Chesapeake
i. British brings the navy and captures and burns the capital and the white house
ii. Move further north
iii. draw
c. Battle of New Orleans
i. Andrew Jackson led a diverse group of troups to fight, he won
Describe the demands of the Hartford Convention
a. Drafted amendments that reflected New Englanders frustration:
i. Congressional representation be calculated on number of white males in state
ii. Limit each president to single term
iii. Insisted that a 2/3 majority was necessary before congress could declare war
Explain the results of the Treaty of Ghent in 1814
a. Did nothing but end fight between America and Britain
b. Back to normal