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Praxis PLT 7-12: Theories & Theorist
Terms in this set (28)
Depicts development as a series of relatively discrete periods, or stages. Development is characterized as progressing through a predictable sequence of stages. Earlier stages provide foundation.
theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior
Social Cognitive Theory
theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their own behavior ("mutual influence" between person, environment, and behavior)
Information Processing Theory
specific ways in which learners mentally think about new information and events...explains how bits of stimuli enter our memory system, selected and organized for storage, are retrieved from memory.
Cognitive Learning Theory
a change in a person's mental structures that creates the capacity to demonstrate different behavior
Social Learning theorist, believed people learn form one another via observation, imitation, and modeling.
Believed learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas/concepts based on their prior knowledge. Important for students to have the ability to "invent" knowledge. His constructivist theory emphasizes student's ability to solve real world problems and make new meaning through reflection. (Discovery Learning)
Bruner's Three Modes of Representation
1. Enactive Stage: Knowledge is primarily stored in the form of motor responses. ("Muscle Memory" and Action Based Information)
2. Iconic Stage: Knowledge is primarily stored in the form of visual images.
3. Symbolic Stages: Knowledge is principally stored as words, mathematical symbols, or other symbol systems. (Such as, language)
Father of Progressive Education. Believed children came to school to DO things. School gives them real, guided experiences, which fosters their capacity to contribute to society. (Learning Through Experience)
Believed children are active & motivated learners, children construct knowledge from their experiences, children learn through the two complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation, interactions with one's physical and social environments are essential for cognitive development, the process of equilibration promotes progression toward increasingly complex thought, and as a result of maturational changes, children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages.
1. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2): Schemes are based primarily on behaviors and perceptions; child focused on here and now. (Object permanence, cause-and-effect).
2. Pre-operational Stage (2-7): Schemes represent objects beyond a child's immediate view, doesn't reason logically. (Verbal communication).
3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12): Adult-like logic appears but is limited to reasoning about concrete reality. (Deductive reasoning).
4. Formal Operations Stage (12-adult): Logical reasoning applied to abstract ideas and concrete objects.
Believed adults in a society foster children's cognitive development in an intentional/systematic manner. Adults engage children in meaningful/challenging activities and help them perform them successfully. (Social Development Theory of Learning, Zone of Proximal Development)
Believed the development of moral reasoning is characterized by a sequence of six stages grouped into three general levels of morality: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. (Theory of Moral Development)
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Reasoning
1. Punishment Avoidance & Obedience
2. Exchange of Favors
3. Good Boy/Good Girl
4. Law & Order
5. Social Contract
6. Universal Ethical Principle (never reach)
His taxonomy refers to a classification of learning objectives that educators set for students. The six general cognitive processes vary from simple to complex.
1. Knowledge: Ability to recall learned information on command.
2. Comprehension: Understanding the meaning of information or materials.
3. Application: Using information and materials to solve new problems.
4. Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.
5. Synthesis: Using new and creative applications of prior knowledge and skills.
6. Evaluation: Make judgments about/evaluate the value of ideas or materials based on personal values/opinions or definite criteria.
Famous for his work on learning theory that led to the development of operant conditioning (learning from the consequences of behavior) within behaviorism. (Operant Conditioning, Behavioral Learning Theory)
Behaviorist who believed in operant conditioning and reinforcement.
His theory of motivation is a central aspect of humanism. Believes that people have five basic kinds of needs.
Maslow's Five Basic Needs
1. Physiological Needs - physical survival (food, water, etc)
2. Safety Needs - feel safe and secure in one's environment
3. Love and Belonging Needs - affectionate relationships and acceptance
4. Esteem Needs - feel good about self and be perceived favorably
5. Self-Actualization Needs - reach one's full potential
Focuses on how people acquire emotions, attitudes, values, and interpersonal skills.
Proposed that people's views of themselves and others change significantly in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. His 8 stages of human development are based on conflict or crisis a person resolves. (Sense of Self Development)
Founder of behaviorism
Learning is a relatively enduring change in observable behavior that occurs as a result of an individuals interaction with the environment. Belief that there is always a possibility of change and improvement.
Belief that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. Places great emphasis on the student as the learner and encourages student learning through personal experience and context.
Social Learning Theory
roots in behaviorism; has incorporated cognitive processes into theory, also incorporates motivation; Suggests that the effect of a behavior has an impact on the motivation of people to engage in that specific behavior. If a students expects a positive outcome from a behavior, or thinks there is a high probability of a positive outcome, then they will be more likely to engage in that behavior. Example - "If you learn some basic spelling rules, you will become a better speller."
Erikson's Stages of Human Development
1. Trust v. Mistrust (Infancy)
2. Autonomy v. Doubt (Toddler)
3. Initiative v. Guilt (Early Childhood)
4. Competence v. Inferiority (Elementary & Middle School)
5. Identity v. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
6. Intimacy v. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
7. Generativity v. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
8. Integrity v. Despair (Late Adulthood)
Questions the male-centered personality psychology of Freud and Erikson, as well as Kohlberg's male-centered stages of development. (Stages of The Ethic of Care)
Recommended textbook explanations
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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Joy's Secondary PLT Praxis Study Guide
Which of the following is an example of conformity? a. Malik has had a series of dogs over the years. Each has learned to curl up at his feet when he watches television. b. Renee buys the same brand of sweatshirt that most of the kids in her school are wearing. c. Jonah makes sure to arrive home before his curfew because he knows he will be grounded if he doesn't. d. Yuri makes sure to arrive home before her curfew because she does not want her parents to be disappointed in her. e. Terry cranks it up a notch during volleyball practice because the team captain has been on her case for not showing enough effort.
An intelligence test that asks a person how many uses they can think of for a golf ball is most, likely testing person's _____ intelligence. a. linguistic. b. practical. c. creative. d. intelligence. e. emotional intelligence.
The way we explain negative and positive events is called a. personal control. b. reciprocal determinism. c. self-efficacy. d. attribution. e. situational assessment.
Which of the following is most likely to be encoded automatically? a. The side-angle-side geometry theorem. b. The names of the last 10 U.S. presidents. c. What you ate for breakfast this morning. d. The names of your cousins. e. The license plate of your new car.