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Examples of Diegetic Sound
Voices of actors speaking, Sounds made by objects in the story, Music coming from visible instruments
The on-set/location sound engineer responsible for the recording of production sound and any sync-related on-set sound mixing and playback.
Works under the supervision of the sound mixer in the recording of production sound, holding mic booms, placing mics, holding cables, and operating various recording devices.
Working in conjunction with the director, the sound designer supervises the mix of music, dialogue, ADR, foley, and sound effects.
Selects songs for the film in partnership with the Director and arranges for proper release for any music used.
An audio recording that is presented in a film to make a specific creative point and to enhance story.
ADR (Automated Dialogue Replacement)
the process in which voices are recorded in post production, replacing voices recorded during principle photography.
The recording of a location's ambient tones in order to allow for naturalistic sound after dubbing dialogue or sound effects in post-production.
The creation of everyday sound effects that are recorded in a foley studio to compliment or replace existing sounds.
In post production, various elements of different sound tracks are brought together to best support, enhance and express the meaning of the film.
The most typical 'directional' microphone used for capturing audio in film productions.
A long pole that allows precise positioning of the microphone above or below the actors, just out of the camera's frame.
Or 'microphone mixer', allows you to take inputs from various audio sources, combine and control them, and then output the signal to a recorder.
Digital Recording Device
Records audio digitally; usually to a device with an internal hard drive or memory cards.
The act of monitoring the live audio recordings by listening and observing peak levels.
Or 'Monophonic', describes a system where all audio is recorded through a single channel.
Or 'Stereophonic', describes a system where all audio is recorded through two independent channels; the left and right channels.
Director of Photography
The DP, or cinematographer, is the camera and lighting supervisor on the production
Duties of Director of Photography
Operation of cameras, Coordination of lighting, Create shot lists for each day of production in coordination with the Director
1st Assistant Camera
assists the DP in camera operation and maintenance and works in coordination with the script supervisor in naming, slating, and logging shots and reels/tapes.
Duties of 1st AC
Slating, loading of film or digital storage and logging, Focus marking and pulling, camera maintenance
AKA the lighting designer, the gaffer is the chief electrician who supervises set lighting in accordance with the requirements of the DP.
Duties of Gaffer
Lighting of sets and locations, Maintenance of lighting equipment, Generator operation
Works with the gaffer in setting and cutting lights, creating shadow effects for the set lighting and supervises camera movements according to the DP.
The chief assistant to the gaffer in the lighting of sets and the operation of electrical systems.
The chief assistant to the key grip, aiding him/her in rigging, cutting light, and carrying out camera movements.
Considered the most basic unit of film grammar, the shot is the actual filming or recording of a scene.
A tool used before 'action' takes place to record the scene information as well as to sync audio. AKA Clapperboard
An optical lens attached to either a digital or film camera body that captures imagery by exposing the film/digital sensor to a specified amount of light.
F-Stop AKA Aperture
Using the iris of the lens, F-Stop measures how much light is entering the camera.
The art and process of piecing together various shots into scene sequences which ultimately, when combined, creates a finished film.
Duties of the Editor
The assembly of the footage into successive cuts until a final cut is reached, Assist the DP with color correction and other post-production effects, The output of the final cut to several formats.
Works as an assistant to the editor, by logging and capturing footage and organizing/managing media.
Duties of Assistant Editor
Maintaining a system of backups, Assisting with multi-format output , Logging, capturing and organizing media.
The 'Classical Hollywood' style of editing; intended to establish a logical coherence of time and space between shots, suggesting that everything in the scene is physically continuous.
All of the stories action and dialogue happen in one continuous linear sequence.
Examples of Temporal Continuity
Use of continuous diegetic sound, Matching of actions from shot to shot.
Continuity of space. The addition of cutting different location shots together in order to maintain logical coherence.
A series of short shots edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information Disregards spatial and temporal continuity editing
The first 'cut' of the motion picture created by the Editor; Also referred to as the 'Rough Cut'.
The Director, working in collaboration with the Editor, makes changes to the Assembly Edit to best reflect the Director's vision.
Typically the editor works in collaboration with the Director and Producers of the film to reach 'picture lock'.
When all editing of the motion picture has been completed and approved.Once picture locked, the film then moves into the sound design, special effects and color correction processes of post production.
Film Editing Before Digital Software
A film negative was literally cut and pasted together to 'edit' the motion picture.
Non-Linear Editing System
Digital editing software designed to allow direct access to any video frame and allows for non-destructive 'cutting' of footage.
The recording of a full scene, from start to finish, that has all of the talent and action in one framed sequence.
A shot edited into a scene that differs from the master shot, but emphasizes certain aspects of the same action in the master shot to keep continuity.
The editing of sequences to establish action occurring at the same time, but in two different locations.
Two shots of the same subject, but in different locations, are cut together, making the subject seem to 'jump' in a discontinuous way.
An abrupt cut from one image to another with no transition, typically used to startle the audience.
The interruption of a continuous sequence by cutting in a view of something else, then typically cutting back to the original sequence.
A transition where one shot replaces another by traveling from one side of the frame to another, or by a special image.
A technique of editing shots with short durations together, rarely having the same image on screen for long periods of time. Creates a fast pace (Action Films)
A technique that edits shots with long durations together, sparingly using cuts to another image. Creates a slow pace (Romantic Films)
Members of the Art Department
Production Designer ,Art Director ,Prop Master, Set Decorator,Key Makeup Artist, Key Hair Dresser, Costume/Wardrobe Designer, Set Costumer
Working under the supervision of the director and in coordination with the art director, the production designer develops, coordinates, facilitates, and oversees the design of the sets, whether on stage or practical locations.
Duties of Production Designer
Determine the visual look of all the visual elements in each shot Participation in location scouting, Design of sets, Supervision of set construction and dressing Coordination, via the art director, with the make up, wardrobe, and camera departments
Working under the supervision of the production designer, the art director develops, coordinates, facilitates, and oversees the overall design of the production.
Duties of the Art Director
Co-ordinate the work of the builders and strike art crew ,Co-ordinate with the on set dresser (the stand-by member of the art dept on set during production), Coordinate the work of the costume designer, production designer, and compositors with the DP and the director.
The prop master works in coordination with the art director, production designer, and DP to gather, maintain, and manage all the props for a production.
Duties of Prop Master
Seeking and obtaining props, Maintenance and management of props, continuity of props in conjunction with script supervisor
The set decorator works closely with the art director, production designer and DP to dress the sets.
Duties of Set Decorator
Painting, draping, furniture placement, arranging the set dressing on the sets ,Striking the set dressing from the sets and returning/disposing of it properly, Set Dressers, dress and maintain continuity of set dressing during principle photography.
Duties of Key Makeup Artist
Meeting actors during prep and consulting with director and production designer on character make-up design, Applying makeup to cast members, Maintaining actor's makeup during shooting, in coordination with the script supervisor
Duties of Key hair dresser
Meeting actors during prep and consulting with director and production designer on character hair design ,Dressing cast members hair ,Maintaining actor's hair during shooting, in coordination with the script supervisor
works under the supervision of the director and the art director to design, obtain, assemble, and maintain the costumes for a production.
Duties of Costume Designer
The development of costuming concepts and design of costumes, Coordination with the art director, production designer, and Director of Photography (DP), Obtaining all costume components, The final assembly of all costumes, Maintenance of all costumes
The set costumer works as an assistant to the costume designer, helping to assemble and maintain the costumes, and also managing and facilitating the use of the costumes during production.
Duties of Ser Costumer
Assist the costume designer in design, obtaining, and assembly of costumes, Organization, maintenance, security and management of costumes, Helping the actors change, cleaning of all costumes
highest paid screenwriter in the United States until the mid-1930s, and served as the Vice President of the Writer's Guild of America for years.
Things that have been adapted into screenplays
Comicbooks , Novels, Short Stories, Poems, Video Games, Twitter feeds, Board Games, Stage plays, Other movies
Duties of Director
Communication with the actors ,Deciding on the lists of shots necessary, Hiring/firing key crew positions, Approval of most/all creative elements of the film
(camera=pen) the theory that the director is the major creative force behind making a movie, even in the industrialist Hollywood setting
The Actor's Director
Someone who's sole focus is the performances of the cast. Sometimes, but not always an actor themselves.
often works material that is very close to them. They tend to focus on the "story" they are shooting more than anything else.
The Obsessive -
These directors are meticulous in their planning and visualizing of the film. No decision is too small for them to fret over.
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