Terms in this set (34)

  • New Freedom
    Platform of reforms advocated by Woodrow Wilson in his first presidential campaign, including stronger antitrust legislation to protect small business enterprises from monopolies, banking reform, and tariff reductions. Wilson's strategy involved taking action to increase opportunities for capitalist competition rather than increasing government regulation of large trusts.
  • New Nationalism
    State-interventionist reform program devised by journalist Herbert Croly and advocated by Theodore Roosevelt during his Bull Moose presidential campaign. Roosevelt did not object to continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions. Rather, he sought to create stronger regulatory agencies to ensure that they operated to serve the public interest, not just private gain.
  • Underwood Tariff
    This tariff provided for a substantial reduction of rates and enacted an unprecedented, graduated federal income tax. By 1917, revenue from the income tax surpassed receipts from the tariff, a gap that has since been vastly widened.
  • Lusitania
    British passenger liner that sank after it was torpedoed by Germany on May 7, 1915. It ended the lives of 1,198 people, including 128 Americans, and pushed the United States closer to war.
  • Zimmermann note
    German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. When the note was intercepted and published in March 1917, it caused an uproar that made some Americans more willing to enter the war.
  • 16 Amendment
    federal income tax provision
  • 19 Amendment
    right to vote for women
  • Lodge
    A prominent Republican senator from Massachusetts, he was chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and a persistent thorn in President Wilson's internationalist side when he crusaded against the League of Nations.
  • Creel
    The young, outspoken, and tactless journalist who was tapped to head the Committee on Public Information during World War I.
  • Brandeis
    A progressive-minded confidant of Woodrow Wilson, he was the litigator behind Muller v. Oregon. In 1916, Wilson made him the first Jewish American to be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Federal Reserve Act
    An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking sector. The law carried the nation through the financial crises of the First World War of 1914-1918.
  • Federal Trade Commission Act
    A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition, false advertising, and mislabeling of goods.
  • Workingmen's Compensation Act
    Passed under Woodrow Wilson, this law granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability. It was a precursor to labor-friendly legislation passed during the New Deal.
  • Adamson Act
    This law established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime. The first federal law regulating the hours of workers in private companies, it was upheld by the Supreme Court in Wilson v. New (1917).
  • Allies
    Great Britain, Russia, and France, later joined by Italy, Japan, and the United States, formed this alliance against the Central Powers in World War I.
  • Bolsheviks
    Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, they seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution
  • Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria, made up this alliance against the Allies in World War I.
  • Committee on Public Information
    A government office during World War I known popularly as the Creel Committee for its chairman George Creel, it was dedicated to winning everyday Americans' support for the war effort. It regularly distributed prowar propaganda and sent out an army of "four-minute men" to rally crowds and deliver "patriotic pep."
  • League of Nations
    A world organization of national governments proposed by President Woodrow Wilson and established by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. It worked to facilitate peaceful international cooperation. Despite emotional appeals by Wilson, isolationists' objections to it created the major obstacle to American signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • irreconcilables
    Led by Senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, this was a hard-core group of militant isolationists who opposed the Wilsonian dream of international cooperation in the League of Nations after World War I. Their efforts played an important part in preventing American participation in the international organization.
  • Big Four
    Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)
  • War Industries Board
    Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
  • Wilson
    28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
  • Federal Farm Loan Act
    Congressional measure making credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
  • Sussex
    Sinking of this ship caused Wilson to demand the Germans refrain from attacking passenger ships. Germany said they would temporarily stop these attacks but might have to resume in the future if the British continued to blockade German ports.
  • Pershing
    He was an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
  • Hughes
    As Secretary of State he wanted to find a replacment to the League of Nations as a guarantee of world peace and stability. The most important of these efforts was the Washington Conference of 1921 which was an attempt to prevent a destabilizing naval armaments race among the US, Britain, and Japan.
  • Article X
    This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
  • Food Administration
    It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.
  • western Front
    A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other
  • Reservationists
    Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Baruch
    He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
  • Wilhelm
    he was the ruler of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
  • arabic
    sinking of this ship caused the Germans to promise to give passengers at least a 30 minute warning before sinking non-military ships