79 terms

biol 457 midterm 2

protected area
an area of land or water dedicated by law or tradition to the protection and management of biodiversity and associated natural and cultural resources.
how are protected areas established?
-govt action at a national and regional level
-through the actions of indigenous/ traditional societies
-land purchases by private owners and conservation organizations
-development of biological field stations that combine biodiversity protection and research with conservation education by universities and other research org.
developed a system for classifying protected areas that ranges from minimal to intensive use of the habitat by humans. the first five are true protected areas because their habitat is managed primarily for the protection of biodiversity. areas in the sixth category are managed resource protected area they conserve biodiversity but the extraction of a natural resource may take higher priority.
where the earth's land surface is protected is not necessarily where there is significant biodiversity.
marine protected areas
have lagged behind because they receive little protection from overharvesting and pollution. biogeographical regions are more difficult to establish because boundaries are less sharp
life cycles include dispersal and different stages require different environments.
marine environment is not well known.
creating new protected areas
requires identifying conservation priorities,
determining those areas that should be protected
linking new protected areas to existing conservation networks
identifying conservation prorities
distinctiveness/irreplaceability: ecosystems with rare endemic species, unusual attributes, taxonomically distinct species and unusual genetic characteristics.

endangerment /vulnerability : species in danger of extinction and ecosystems with imminent destruction

utility species that represent a potential or current value to humans. species with major cultural and economic value.
determining which areas should be protected
species approach: protecting a particular species and in doing so protecting an entire biological community. keystone/focal species, indicator species, flagship species: a large well known species that is one of the charismatic mega fauna, when these species are protected a large amount of species are protected and associated ecosystem processes are also protected.

ecosystem approach: ecosystems and the biological communities they contain rather than the species should be targeted for conservation. habitat protection and the management of a self maintaining ecosystem might preserve more species and provide more value in the long run.

hotspot approach: certain organisms can be used as biodiversity indicators to guide protection efforts. high diversity of plants high diversity of endemism protecting centres of species for one type of organism and the diversity of other species will also be preserved.
establishing protected areas with limited data
linking new protected areas to existing conservation networks
gap analysis:
identify on separate maps the distribution of the species and those areas under protection. overlay those maps to determine which species are present in already protected areas and with sufficient representation and which are not those not represented are called species overlay maps of gap species distributions to identify where new protected areas are needed.
designing networks of protected areas
many places that are protected are not necessarily where biodiversity is. where there are more humans there are conflicts with the establishment of protected areas.
existing and proposed networks
need to be evaluated for their ability to protect biodiversity now and in the future as species and ecosystem are dynamic and change their distribution in response to climate change.

there is a need to be more organized in establishing new protected areas as they are often created in a haphazard fashion. size and placement of PAs often determined by the dist of ppl, potential land values and the political efforts of conservation minded citizens and historical factors
issues of reserve design
the four R's to optimize biodiversity protection
representation: the protected areas should contain as many aspects of biodiversity as possible
resiliency: PAs must be sufficiently large to maintain all aspects of biodiversity in a healthy condition for the future uncertainties.
redundancy: Pas must include enough examples of each aspect of biodiversity to ensure the long term existence of the unit in the face of future uncertainties
reality: there must be sufficient funds and political will not only to acquire and protect lands but to subsequently regulate and manage the protected areas.
questions of reserve design
how large must a nature reserve be to be effective is it better to have a single large PA or multiple smaller ones?
how many individuals of an endangered species must be included to prevent extirpation
what is the best shape
when a network is created should the areas be close together or far apart? should they be isolated or connected?
some of the answers are being explored using
island biogeography model where islands with larger areas have more species than islands with small areas but are park really habitat islands. the island biogeography model assumes that parks are habitat completely isolated by an unprotected matrix of inhospitable terrain but many species are able to migrate and live through this habitat matrix. all these issues have been viewed with terrestrial vertebrates and large invertebrates the applicability to fresh water and marine nature reserves needs to be further investigated.
single large or several small. large reserves sustain wide ranging low density species, minimize ration of edge habitat to core habitat, encompass more species and can have more habitat diversity than small reserves. human population densities are lower on the edges of larger reserves and this could contribute to higher extinction rates in small parks. small reserves need not to be maintained because of their inability to support long term ecosystem processes and all successional stages
small reserves
well placed small reserves are able to include a greater variety of habitat types and more populations of rare species than one large block of the same area. decreases the probability that a single catastrophic force will destroy an entire species but strategies for reserve size depends on the species and the scientific circumstances.
when designing PAs
the four R's to optimize protection of biodiversity
representation: the PA must contain enough aspects of biodiversity as possible species habitats etc
resiliency: the PA must be sufficiently large to maintain biodiversity healthy in the case of unforeseen conditions
redundancy: the PA must contain enough examples of each aspect of biodiversity so as to withstand future uncertain conditions
reality: there must be enough money and political will to acquire land for PA as well as to regulate and manage them.
some issues of reserve design
how large must a reserve be? one large or single?
how many individuals are needed to prevent extirpation of a species?
what is the best shape of a reserve?
when a network of reserves is created should they be isolated or connected by corridors
some of these issues are being answered with the island biogeography model
larger island contains more species than smaller ones but this assumes that parks are habitat completely isolated by an unprotected matrix of inhospitable terrain but many species are capable of living in and dispersing through this habitat matrix

also these issues have been mainly viewed with land vertebrates, high plants and large invertebrates in mind. the applicability of these ideas to marine reserves are to be explored
when a new park is being established
it should be made as large as possible to preserve as many species as possible
contain large populations of each species
provide a wide variety of habitats and natural resources
keystone resources should be included in addition to habitat features that promote biodiversity such as high elevation
land adjacent should be acquired to minimize external threats and maintaining critical buffer zones.
isolated nature reserves
should be managed as a meta population with efforts made to encourage migration between reserves by maintaining connectivity. knowledge of the species natural history, distribution and ecology.
conservation areas
should be rounded to minimize the edge area and centre is further away from the edge
internal fragmentation should be avoided because it fragments larger population into smaller one increasing extinction risks, alters the climate, provides entry for invasive species, more undesirable edge effects, barriers against dispersal and decreasing probability of colonization of new sites.
Networks of PAs
nature reserves are often embedded in a larger matrix of habitat managed for resource extraction, those areas are often larger and reduce fragmentation can be used as corridors which are sites for wildlife, populations of rare species should be managed as a large metapopulation to facilitate gene flow and migration among populations
managing PAs
they have different objectives, depending on their legal status, establishment history and individual characteristics, some are designated for biodiversity protection and are managed to meet the needs of a particular species while others protect whole ecosystems
regardless of their objectives
most PAs require active management and it is important that the management be tailored to its goals. humans have modified the envt so much that remaining species and communities need human monitoring and intervention in order to survive since their habitat quality has been degraded.
management success
uk, moderate grazing may be important in maintaining rare species and preventing certain dominant/invasive species from establishing themselves.
management failures
active management to promote abundance of game species such as deer resulted in the removal of top predators and resulted in overgrazing and habitat and ecosystem degradation

removal of dead rotting trees to pretty the landscape resulted in the removal of critical resources needed by certain animal to nest

attempts to suppress fire, suppressing normal fire cycle leads to loss of species that are dependent on this cycle and massive uncontrollable fires.
parks must be managed to prevent
the most effective parks are those whose managers have the benefit of information provided by research and monitoring programs and have the funds available to implement management plans.

smaller reserves require more active management because they are surrounded by an altered envt, less interior habitat, more easily affected by exotic species, more funds needed to control hunting, to regulate the frequency of fires and number of visitors
monitoring as a management tool
identifying and managing threats,
exotic/invasive species: need to be removed or reduced in frequency because once they are established they are impossible to remove, herbicide, burning, and public relations needed to justify the intervention

actively managed to ensure all successional stages are present so that species characteristic of each stage has a place to persist and thrive
manage water
supply of clean water and not compete with agricultural and residential needs. water quality monitory, managing keystone resources.
management and people
involvement of local people top down strategies need to be integrated with bottom up programs in which local people play a leadership role.
dealing with conflicting demands on a PA. considers the overall management objectives for a park and sets aside designated areas that permit or give priority to certain activities, some areas may be designated for resource extraction and the core area is strictly prohibited but surrounded by a buffer zone where non destructive research and traditional human activities are modified. local people are more wiling if they are allowed to zone and certain desirable features of the landscapes are created by human use and may be favorable for animal dispersal.
certain human activites
are incompatible with maintaining biodiversity within a PA> selecting large animals induce size selective mortality which induces evolutionary change within a population and to avoid this you can close the lakes temporarily or make regulations on the size of the fish being caught or cycle between the years.

logging must be regulated because intensive harvesting causes uncontrollable fires.
challenges in park management
increasing demand on remaining patches of natural habitat adequate funding is needed to enforce park policy more guards/unit, more protection, more park borders being defined, more vegetation being maintained, positive attitudes of local people, low human population.
conservation outside protected areas
we cannot rely solely on PA to preserve biodiversity. many rare/endangered species move between PA need conservation strategies fo PAs as well as urban areas
the smaller the PA
the more it will depend on adjacent unprotected lans. the value of unprotected land essential for longer term survival of many species public education/financial subsidies may be needed.
florida panther
1/2 habitat on private lands these have better soil and prey, more habitat needed but education to private landowners so that they practice management that help biodiversity.
conservation in urban areas
many nature species persist in urban areas these habitat types will become more common in the future so new challenges for conservation. salamander in a swimming pool, partitioning the pool

golf courses that result in artificial habitats for damselfies and dragonflies.
not all species have the potential
to live within human dominated landscapes what habitat and disturbance features are important for various species , how do we integrate these questions into urban landscapes.

considerable biodiversity is maintained in traditional agricultural system, small scale, limited use of pesticides,
traditionally grown coffee.
community based wildlife management
namibia local landowners and communities have the authority to manage and profit from wildlife on their own property, benefits and revenue from tourism creates jobs generate more revenue through establishment of campsites that establish trophy hunting quotas, own management plans for subsistence of species.
restoration ecology
some situations require active human involvement to restore ecosystems, places that humans have degraded we need to bring them back in order to enhance and enlarge existing PAs.

yellowstone: wolves restored ecosystem processes, shift in prey communities and restoring the habitat.
ecological restoration
practice of restoring species and ecosystems that occupied a site at some point in the past.
restoration ecology
the science of restoration and how you go about doing restoring.
different ways to restore
compensatory mitigation: business/govt may be required by law to restore habitat, land that was degraded due to the activities of an industry such as a dam or mining.

restoring ecological processes: such as application of fires to permit the burning of old growth forest to permit the natural succession to take plave
refers to the rehabilitation, reclamation, recreation and recovery of degraded lands these efforts may be conducted on a small scale such as tree planting or may involve major human and technical efforts. such as recreation of wetlands and lake neutralization
feasibility : agents of damage are removed unlikely if the envt has been severely altered, if original species has been eliminated from a large area and if so you might have to actively bring native species to recreate the ecosystem
restoration goals
adaptive restoration technique.
decision making to initiate a project only useful with proper experimental design,
-explicitly stated goals
- informed by ecological knowledge
-quantitative assessment of system responses employing pre and post restoration data collection
-analysis and application of results to inform subsequent efforts.
corrections that are made to
the restoration process should be guided by theory and experimentation
restoration ecology approaches
no action: restoration is too expensive confident that the ecosystem can recover on its own, know alot about the biology/ecology and confident there might be recolonization from adjacent habitats over time

rehabilitation: active intervention replace a degraded ecosystem with another productive type. new ecosystem successful but quite distinct from pre degradation
restoration ecology approaches ctd
partial restoration: restoring some of the ecosystem functions and some of the original species. triage?

complete restoration: restoring area to its original species composition and structure rebuilds an ecosystem little different from the pristine ecosystem that was degraded.
relevance to the broader field of ecology
opportunity to look at how the ecosystem operates and determine if we have it right about how the ecosystem functions, testing concepts and principles of ecology as well as putting biodiversity to what it once was
relevance to society
govts usually willing to restore degraded lands to increase their production and conservation empowers people, green belt movement, plant trees we get resources timber, shade, prevention of erosion
you need
active monitory to determine the efficacy of different restoration approaches in order to create a reference
examples on a large scale
staten island: landfill before, plants targeted on top soil animals and birds colonize from adjacent lands over a short period of time
lake erie: reducing phosphorous discharge increased top fish predators reducing algal blooms
what is the target ecosystem
should N.A prairie grasslands be restored to pre european or before humans existed the longer an ecosystem has been impacted by humans the more difficult it will be to restore the ecosystem. to what it once ws
restoration genetics
facilitating species restoration.
examine feasibility ; using proper experimental design see if the species is suitable , is there a suitable source. threats that affected original species shouldnt be present, suitable habitat within the historic range of species and that protected status can be provided for the reintroduced population, evaluate genetics of potentially reintroduction, design the reintroduction to ensure potential for long term adaptive management
what source to use?
match population with phylogenetic similarity: shared evolutionary, history safe but limit genetic diversity cant handle high envt change. successful if ecosystem the same, the threats can be dealt with and low degree of envt change
match population with ecological similarity
what are the key selective agents on the species and seeing what species matches ecologically fast growth, ecologically safe but low genetic diversity and climate might change
mix multiple populations
lots of unknowns and high envt change or degradation, hybrids provide raw material for selection to act upon. novel phenotypes but affect gene pools of nearby conspecifics, changes the ecosystem, invasive species facilitation
rewilding, de extinction and wilderness in the anthropocene
restoration to the extreme
what is the target ecosystem state
pleistocene rewilding
restoration before humans existed on a continent to restore native ecosystems bringing it back based on good knowledge of the cause of extinction and bringing it large predators or herbivores that used to reside in these ecosystems.
pleistocene park
sibera restoring steppe grasslands- megafauna not climate maintains the ecosystem, regualted by top predators that no longer exist. to recreate the action of these large predators or herbivores they use auroch.
reasons and tradeoffs
tradeoffs between bringing back large predators back to NA prairie grasslands because they are endangered in africa and asia but people wont be too excited about a lion being in their backyard. depends on the species a tortoise is safe to bring back but wont generate funds or excitement
biggest problems
is not failing to restore lost interactions but risk of new unwanted interactions, why not save existant endangered biodiversity, they dont adequately replicate original genetic material and disease transmission to native species
de-extinction ways that its happening
backbreeding: selectively breeding closely related descendants to produce progeny with extinct species phenotype using genome sequencing, but only possible when the genetic variation of extinct organism is present in descendants, doesnt produce full genome and microbiome, culture and envt isnt regenerated.
using cryopreserved tissue and somatic cell nuclear transfer to revive extinct species. failed fetuses, unsafe, inefficinet need viable cell nuclei produces full genome of extinct organism in few individuals but culture, microbiome and envt isnt regenerated
genetic engineering
full genome sequencing from high quality dna from cells of a living related species. using targeted replacement of genome sequence across loci to reconstruct the extinct genome over successive generations doesnt produce full genome and culture, microbiome and evnt isnt regenerated
against de-extinction
animal welfare: revived animals might suffer deformities
revived animals may be excellent vectors of pathogens
may become invasive in contemporary ecosystems
current endangered species legislation hinges largely on irreversibility
why spend money on reviving species when human needs and medicine needs arent met
management of non native species
non native species can become invasive and have detrimental consequences on the ecosystems that they are introduced in such as zebra mussels. high cost of eradication and full eradication isnt possible because they are robust and only need a few individuals to reproduce. but removal of a species can also have unforeseen ecological consequences and this because some of these species have become integrated and play a key role in the ecosystem
dingo: introduced to australia.
wiped out top predators but does the job now, if removed herbivores will expand disaster for fauna. dingo hierarchical society so regulates itself
honeysuckle plants: high fruitability to improve bird habitat but now invasive but have formed mutualistic relationship with native frugivorous birds facilitates the seed dispersal of native plants
as soon as a species is introduced
it starts to adapt and nature species also start to adapt
non native species eradication can lead them to extinction
extinct in their home range: softshell turtle abundant in hawaii where it is invasive a novel predator for fresh water communities but endangered in vietnam where it is hunted for its meat and medicinal opportunities so this means that,
management of non native species
conciliation biology : a branch of biology youre not determining how to keep out species but how to manage the long term relationship between non native and native and how to manage them in the future.
ecoeolutionary management
in areas where we cannot eradicate species we need to make the ecosystem sustainable without human intervention areas with invaders and intermediate this pushes native species adaptation and these will be selected for over a long time
illegal hunting killing or capturing of wild animals for ornamental purposes or medicinal purposes, creating a consumer base whether the product is effective or not.
bans of selected species, increase patrolling, ecotourism, dehorn, social outreach reduce demand for poached products, increase risk of being caught, and consequences, for poaches social marketing problems 3d printed horn domesticated wildlife but these increase demand for real product and affect law enforcement

aircraft piloted and antipoaching tas
probiotics as a conservation tool
amphibian using probiotics to make them resistant to fungi, individuals or ecosystem such as bioaugmentation. probiotics repel fungi through negative chemotaxis or compete for space and food and sites of attachement. protection will b e long term and spread to the rest of the population but need to consider evolutionary history and species specific or not
use of genetics to control invasive species
traditional methods not working make males sterile, chromosomal translocation, sex separation, lethal gene towards female.
hope for the future
through sustainable agriculture and use of energy
through restoration and successful reintroductions, hope from community based conservation initiatives, hope from an option value stand point. hope from new technologies, hope from ecological economics

even if we decrease human growth it wont affect much so we need to reduce our consumption and estbalish proactive thinking to maintain a sustainable society