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after the flood it changed, there were seasons, rain, snow, and polar ice caps because the canopy was now gone


ratio of land to water before the flood


ratio of land to water since the flood

life expectancy

decreased primarily because of increased radiation

land bridges

in the year immediately after the flood, these connected the continents and made population of the entire Earth possible

Why have the connecting passages been submerged?

because of the increased oceanic water from melted ice once contained in the poles and in glacial ice sheets


probably became extinct because their food supply was depleated

Between Creation and the Flood

Earth changed very little because of the absence of forces to bring about those changes


layer of the Earth's crust composed mostly of granite


layer of the Earth's crust composed mostly of basalt

sima location

under the continents and the oceans

sial location

the upper layer of crust on the continents


magnitude of a great earthquake on the Richter scale


point at which an earthquake begins

subduction zone

area where one plate is sliding under another


sections of Earth's crust


amount of energy released by an earthquake


point on the surface above the focus

plate tectonics

activity of Earth's plates

transform fault

area where plates are sliding past each other

spreading zone

area where plates are pulling apart


breaking down of rocks

Earth's orbit around the sun

one factor that causes changes in the seasons

Earth's tilt on its axis

second factor causing seasonal changes


of a region as an effect on and is affected by the seasons and climate of that region

If Earth's axis were not tilted

we would all have days and nights of equal length everyday

hemisphere tiled towards the sun

its days are longer during the summer

spring and autumnal equinox

day and night are the same length, and the sun is directly over the equator

summer and winter solstice

the sun's rays are at either their northernmost or southernmost point

autumnal equinox

beginning of fall

winter solstice

the beginning of winter

spring equinox

beginning of spring

summer solstice

beginning of summer

summer solstice

longest day of the year

winter solstice

shortest day of the year

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