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305 terms

Biology Final

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A human eats a deer. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the deer?
predation
Humans and sharks both eat fish. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the shark?
competition
Humans who have pets tend to be healthier than humans who do not have pets. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a human and a pet?
mutualism
Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a dog and a blood-sucking tick?
parasitism
An egret eats insects stirred up by grazing animals. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the egret and the grazing animal?
commensalism
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
producers
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
detritivore
secondary consumer
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
primary consumer
A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.
tertiary consumer
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
surface exposed by retreating glacier
Plants use _____ as a source of energy.
light
What element is found in all organic compounds?
carbon
What name is given to organisms that convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide?
decomposers
What name is given to the process by which detritivores return carbon to the atmosphere?
decomposition
removes carbon from the atmosphere?
algea
Detritus is composed of _____.
dead organic matter and excretory wastes
Nitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____.
ammoinium __ nitrates
_____ removes nitrogen from the atmosphere.
Nitrogen fixation
Denitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____.
nitrates __ nitrogen gas
The study of the interaction of organisms with each other and their environment involves non-living factors, also called _________________, and living factors, which are referred to as __________________.
abiotic components; biotic components
Which of the following options lists the ecological hierarchy in the correct order, from largest to smallest?
biosphere; ecosystem; community; population; organism
A scientist is studying how sea slugs respond to predators. Which hierarchical level of ecology does this represent?
community
Desert owls are inactive during the day and active at night. They also have small bodies. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.
anatomical and behaviora
Horned lizards are desert animals that are active during the day. Their skin and kidneys are efficient at conserving water; when they get hot, they move to the shade so they can cool off. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.
anatomical, behavioral, and physiological
The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.
substrate at the bottom of the body of water
marine
The _____ biome is the largest of Earth's biomes.
A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.
estuary
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and light
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
desert
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
confierous forest
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
tundra
Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?
equator
what is a biodiversity hotspot?
number of endemic species, number of species, degree to which the species are threatened to extiction
A sink habitat is where a subpopulation's death rate is _____.
greater than its reproductive rate
Fertilizer runoff can result in _____ a lake.
the eutrophication of
Most biodiversity hot spots are in the _____.
tropics
A group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area defines a
population
Which of the following is an example of a population?
all students in classroom
The pattern of distribution for a certain species of kelp is clumped. We would expect that the pattern of distribution for a population of snails that live on the kelp would be
clumped
Assume that there are five alligators per acre in a swamp in northern Florida. This is a measure of the alligator population's
density
You drive through Iowa in the spring and notice that along a stretch of several kilometers, every third fence post has a male redwing blackbird perched on it defending its nesting territory. This is an example of
uniform disperstion
A Type I survivorship curve is the result of which of the following life history traits?
parents providing extended care for their young
A survivorship curve
is a graph that plots an individual's likelihood of being alive as a function of age.
The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called its
carrying capacity
In the logistic growth model, as population size increases, birth rates
rates decline and/or death rates increase.
An ecological footprint
is a means of understanding resource availability and usage.
The human population on Earth is expected to reach 9.5 billion people by
2050
A community is composed of
potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms.
An owl and a hawk both eat mice. Which of these terms describes the relationship between a hawk and an owl?
competition
When two different populations in a community benefit from their relationship with each other, the result is called
mutualism
The sum total of a population's use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its
niche
In an ecosystem, you would expect to find interspecific competition between
populations of two species that occupy the same niche.
Dinoflagellates are important to coral and coral-dwelling animals because they
produce energy that is used by coral animals through photosynthesis.
One mechanism that prey populations evolve to avoid predation is
camouflage
Some herbivore-plant interactions evolved through a series of reciprocal evolutionary adaptations in both species. The process is called
coevolution
Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines, and thorns because the plants
cannot run away from herbivores.
In addition to environmental factors, community composition of plants can be severely compromised by
parasites and pathogens
The primary decomposers of a community are called
detrivitors
In a hypothetical food chain consisting of grass, grasshoppers, sparrows, and hawks, the grasshoppers are
primary consumers
On Earth, most organic molecules are produced by
photosynthesis
Within an ecosystem, a tree is a
producer
reduction in the number of mice
In a certain ecosystem, field mice are preyed on by snakes and hawks. The entry of wild dogs into the system adds another predator of the mice. Of the following, the most likely short-term result of this addition is
The number of species in a community is called the
species richness
Which of the following statements regarding food webs is true?
Several species of primary consumers may feed on the same species of producer.
During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community generally
changes gradually because each species responds differently to the changing environment.
Biological control is defined as
the intentional release of a natural enemy of a pest population.
Non-native species that are introduced in new environments, spread far beyond the original point of introduction, and cause damage are called
invasive species.
The flow of ________ into ecosystems occurs in one direction only, while ________ are recycled within the ecosystem itself.
energy ___ chemicals
Which of the following processes does not occur in ecosystems?
The energy source that powers the system is used by consumers to make organic compounds.
For a given area and time period, the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy is called
primary production.
Carbon mainly cycles between the biotic and abiotic worlds through the processes of
respiration and photosynthesis.
The primary goal of conservation biology is to
counter the loss of biodiversity.
The three greatest current threats to biodiversity, in order starting with the greatest, are
habitat destruction, the introduction of invasive species, and overexploitation.
CO2 flooding into the atmosphere is absorbed by ________ and converted into biomass.
photosynthetic organisms
An important change in populations and species in response to climate change is
distribution
An organism's responses to climate change that result in phenotypic variation is called
phenotypic plasticity.
The study of the interaction of organisms with each other and their environment involves non-living factors, also called _________________, and living factors, which are referred to as __________________.
abiotic components; biotic components
Which of the following options lists the ecological hierarchy in the correct order, from largest to smallest?
biosphere; ecosystem; community; population; organism
A scientist is studying how sea slugs respond to predators. Which hierarchical level of ecology does this represent?
Community
Which hierarchical level is represented by a survey of students and their habits?
Population
What is the largest hierarchical level that global warming affects?
Biosphere
Population Ecology
the study of factors that affect population density and growth
Population
a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area
population density
the numer of individuals of a species per unit area of volume of habitat
age structures
the distribution of individuals in different age-groups
Life Tables
track survivalship, and mortality the chance of an individual in a given population surviving to various ages
Survivorship curve
a plot of the number of individuals still alive at each age in the maximum life span -use percentages
Type I
produce few offspring, but give them good care, increasing the likelihood hat they will survive to maturity
Type III
low survivorship for the very young, followed by a period when survivorship is high for those few individuals who live to a certain age
Type II
intermediate, there are no more vulnerable at one stage of the life cycle than another
Life history
the set of traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival
opportunistic life history
Type III, one that enables the plant or animal to take immediate advantage of favorable conditions
Equilibrial life history
pattern of developing and reaching sexual maturity slowly and producing few, well-cared-for offspring
exponential population growth
describes the expansion of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, -J shaped curve
limiting factors
environmental factors that hold population growth in check
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain
logistic population growth
the growth rate decreases as the population size approaches carrying capacity, -s shaped
intraspecific competition
competition between individuals of the same species for the same limited resources
density-dependent factor
a population-limiting factor whose effects intensify as the population increases in density
density-independent factor
a population limiting factor whose intensity is unrelated to population density
threatened species
species that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future
invasive species
non-native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and causes environmental or economic damage by colonizing an dominating suitable habitats
biological control
the intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population
coevolution
evolutionary changes in which an adaptation of one species leads to the counter adaptation in a second species
population momentum
the increased proportion of women of child bearing age in the population
ecological footprint
an estimate of the amount of land required to provied the raw materials an individual or a population consumes
Ecology
the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments
Biotic Factors
all of the organisms in the area that make up the living component of the environment
Abiotic factors
make up the environment's nonliving component ndinclude chemical and physical factors, such as temp, light, water, minerals, and air.
Habitat
the specific environment it lives in, -biotic and abiotic
Organismal ecology
concerned with the evolutionary adaptions that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments.
Population
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
population ecology
concentrates mainly on factors that affect population density and growth
community
consists of all the organisms that inhabit a particular area
community ecology
focus on how interactions between species such as predation and competition affect community structure and organization
ecosystem
includes all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area
ecosystem ecology
questions concern energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors
biosphere
the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
Abiotic factors of the biosphere
energy source- sunlight, temperature, water, nutrients, other aquatic factors, other terrestrial factors-wind
How are the fiels of ecology and evolution linked?
the process of evolutionary adaptation via natural selection results from the interactions of organisms with their environments
Acclimation
a physiological response that is a gradual, thought still reversible, physiological adjustment that occurs in response to an environmental change
anatomical response
a response to an environmental challenge that results in a change in body shape or structure
biome
a major terrestrial or aquatic life zone, characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or the physical environment in aquatic biomes
photic zone
shallow water near shore and the upper layer of water away from the shore, -light is available for photosynthesis
aphotic zone
where light levels are two low to support photosynthesis
benthic zone
the bottom of all aquatic biomes made up of sand and organic sediments
wetland
a transitional biome between an aquatic ecosystem and a terrestrial one
benthic realm
sea floor
pelagic realm
all open water
phytoplankton
photosynthetic algae and bacteria
zooplankton
free-floating animals, including many microscopic ones
coral reef
occurs in the photic zone of warm tropical waters in scattered locations around the globe
estuary
a transition area between a river and the ocean
tropics
the region from the tropic of cancer to the tropic of Capricorn
temperate zones
latitudes between the tropics and the arctic circle in the north and the antarctic circle in the south
Why is there so much rainfall in the tropics?
air at the equator rises as it is warmed by direct sunlight. as the air rises, it cools. this causes cloud formation and rainfall because cool air holds less moisture than warm air
Why are climbing plants common in rain forests?
climbing is a plant adaptation for reaching sunlight in a closed canopy, where little sunlight reaches the forest floor
tropical forest
occur in equatorial areas where the temperatures is warm and days are 11-12 hours long year round
savannas
dominated by grasses and scattered trees. temp is warm year round. rainfall varies dramatically with season
chaparral
form from cool ocean currents circulating offshore, producing mile, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.
temperate grassland
some of the characteristics of tropical savannas but are mostly treeless, except along rivers or streams , and are found in regions of relatively cold winter temperatures
temperate broadleaf forests
occur throughout midlatitudes where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees.
coniferous forests
cone-bearing evergreen trees such as pine, spruce, fir, and hemlock
taiga
northern coniferous forest- largest terrestrial biome
temperate rain forests
coastal North America area that are coniferous forests
tundra
covers expansive areas of the artic between the taiga and polar ice
permafrost
bitterly cold temperatures and high winds are responsible for the absence of trees and other tall plants
polar ice
covers the land at high latitudes north of the arctic tundra in the No. Hemisphere
sustainability
the goal of developing, managing, and conserving earth's resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations
greenhouse gasses
co2, water vapor, and methane
green house effect
the natural heating effect
carbon footprint
the amount of greenhouse gas emitted as a result of the actions of a single individual
Biodiversity
biological diversity
How does the loss of genetic diversity endanger a population?
A population with decreased genetic diversity has less ability to evolve in response to environmental change
Main causes of declining biodiversity
habitat destruction, fragmentation, invasive species, overexploitation, pollution
Community
an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction
Interspecific Interactions
interactions between species
Ecological niche
the sum of its use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
Competitive Exclusion Principle
if the ecological niches of two species are too similar, they cannot coexist in the same place
Mutualism
+/+, both species benefit from an interaction
Competition
-/-
predation
+/-, an interaction in which one species kills and east another
Cryptic Coloration
makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background
Herbivory
(+/-) the consumption of plant parts of algae by an animal
Parasite
lives on or in a host from which it obtains nourishment
Trophic Structure
the feeding relationships among the various species in a community
Food Chain
the sequence o food transfer between trophic levels
Producers
the bottom of the food chain, -plants, -phytoplankton
Consumers
all organisms in tropic levels above the producers, -heterotroph
Primary consumers
herbivores- eat plants, algae, or phytoplankton
Carnivores
eat the consumers from the level below
detritus
the dead material left by all trophic levels
detrivores
scavengers, consume detritus
decomposers
consisting of prokaryotes, fungi, and protists, secrete enzymes that digest molecules in organic material and convert them to inorganic forms
how much solar energy is converted to chemical energy
1%
biomass
the amount of living organic material in an ecosystem
species diversity
the variety of species that make up the community
species richness
the number of different species in the community
relative abundance
the proportional representation of a species in a community
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments is called
ecology
Abiotic components consist of
nonliving chemical and physical factors, such as temperature, light, water, minerals, and air.
Biotic components include
the living factors—all the other organisms that are part of an individual's environment.
Ecologists
test hypotheses in the laboratory and in the field, use computer simulations of large-scale experiments that might be impossible to conduct in the field, and pose and test hypotheses.
Organismal ecology
is concerned with the evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments. The distribution of organisms is limited by the abiotic conditions they can tolerate. For example, organismal ecologists study. (1) whale adaptations for deep diving or (2) how earthworms are restricted to moist environments because their skin does not prevent dehydration.
The population
is a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area. Population ecology concentrates mainly on factors that affect density and growth. For example, what factors limit the number of striped mice that can inhabit a particular area?
A community
consists of all the organisms that inhabit a particular area. It is an assemblage of populations of different species. Community ecology focuses on how interactions among species, such as predation, competition, and symbiosis, affect community structure and organization. For example, what factors influence the diversity of tree species that make up a particular forest?
An ecosystem
includes all the abiotic factors and the community of species in a certain area. Ecosystem ecology is concerned with the energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors. The biosphere is the global ecosystem—the sum of all the planet's ecosystems, or all of life and where it lives. (1) It is the most complex level of ecology. (2) Isolated in space, the biosphere is self-contained, or closed, except that its photosynthetic producers derive energy from sunlight, and it loses heat to space.
Sunlight
Solar energy powers nearly all ecosystems. In aquatic environments the availability of sunlight: (1) has a significant effect on the growth and distribution of algae, and (2) most photosynthesis occurs near the surface of the water. In terrestrial environments, light is often not the most important factor limiting plant growth.
Water
Aquatic organisms face problems of water balance if their own solute concentration does not match that of their surroundings. Terrestrial organisms have adaptations to prevent dehydration. (1) Many land species have watertight coverings that reduce water loss. (a) A waxy coating on the leaves and other aerial parts of most plants help prevent dehydration. (b) Mammals have an outer layer of dead skin containing a waterproofing protein.(2) Mammalian kidneys excrete very concentrated urine to eliminate urea with minimal water loss.
Temperature
Environment influences metabolism. (1) Few organisms can maintain a sufficiently active metabolism at temperatures close to 0 ̊C (32°F), and (2) temperatures above 50 ̊C (122°F) destroy the enzymes of most organisms. Extraordinary adaptations enable some species to live outside this temperature range. For example: (1) some North American frogs and turtles can freeze during the winter months and still survive, (2) prokaryotes living in hot springs have enzymes that function optimally at extremely high temperatures, and (3) mammals and birds can remain considerably warmer than their surroundings.
Wind
has diverse effects. Some organisms such as bacteria, protists, and many insects that live on snow-covered mountain peaks, depend on nutrients blown to them by winds. Many plants depend on wind to disperse their pollen and seeds. Local wind damage often creates openings in forests, contributing to patchiness in ecosystems. Wind also increases an organism's rate of water loss by evaporation. The consequent increase in evaporative cooling can be advantageous on a hot summer day but can cause dangerous wind chill in the winter. Wind can also affect the pattern of a plant's growth
Rocks and Soil
The physical structure and chemical composition of rocks and soil limit the distribution of plants and of the animals that feed on the vegetation. Soil variation contributes to the patchiness we see in terrestrial landscapes. The composition of the substrate can affect water chemistry, influencing the resident plants and animals in streams, rivers, and marine environments.
Periodic Disturbances
Catastrophic disturbances, including fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and volcanic eruptions, can devastate biological communities. After the disturbance, (1) the area is recolonized by organisms or repopulated by survivors, but (2) the structure of the community undergoes a succession of changes during the rebound. Several communities actually depend on periodic fire to maintain them.
Three types of adaptations enable plants and animals to adjust to changes in their environments
physiological, anatomical, and behavioral. These changes occur during the lifetime of an individual, so they do not qualify as evolution (a change in a population over time)
Physiological Responses
Short-term responses in a cat include- the contraction of tiny muscles attached to the hairs and the constriction of blood vessels in the skin.
acclimation
Longer-term responses are called acclimation. An example is the gradual increase in the number of red blood cells in an animal that moved to a higher elevation (with less oxygen). Acclimation can take days or weeks. This is why high-altitude hikers—such as those attempting to scale Mount Everest—need extended stays at a base camp before proceeding to the summit.
Endotherms
use their metabolism to regulate internal temperature
Ectotherms
are more limited in the climates they can tolerate.
Anatomical Responses
Many organisms respond to environmental challenges with some type of change in body shape or anatomy (structure).
Behavioral Responses
In contrast to plants, most animals can respond to an unfavorable change in the environment by moving to a new location. Such movement may be: fairly localized, such as a lizard shuttling between sun and shade, or over great distances, such as migratory birds.
The distribution of the biomes largely depends on
latitudinal patterns and climate.
Most biomes are
named for major physical or climatic features and for their predominant vegetation and characterized by microorganisms, fungi, and animals adapted to that particular environment
biome
is a major terrestrial or aquatic life zone characterized by vegetation type or the physical environment ; it is a type of biological community, not a collection of certain species of organisms.
Aquatic biomes
consisting of freshwater and marine ecosystems, occupy the largest part of the biosphere.
photic zone
Shallow water near shore and the upper stratum of water away from shore make up the photic zone, so named because light is available for photosynthesis. (a) Phytoplankton (microscopic algae and cyanobacteria) grow in the photic zone,
aphotic zone
If a lake or pond is deep enough or murky enough, it has an aphotic zone where light levels are too low to support photosynthesis.
benthic zone
At the bottom of all aquatic biomes, the substrate is called the benthic zone, occupied by communities of organisms, including a diversity of bacteria, collectively called benthos.
detritus
A major source of food for the benthos is detritus, dead organic matter that "rains" down from the productive surface waters of the photic zone.
Nitrogen and phosphorus
are the mineral nutrients that usually limit the amount of phytoplankton in a lake or pond.
A river or stream changes greatly between
its source and the point at which it empties into a lake or the ocean. Near a source, the water is usually cold, low in nutrients, and clear, with a narrow channel and swift current. The current also inhibits the growth of phytoplankton. Most of the organisms are supported by the photosynthesis of algae attached to rocks or organic material (such as leaves) carried into the stream from the surrounding land. The most abundant benthic animals are insects that eat algae, leaves, or one another.
Trout
are often the predominant fishes, locating their food, including insects, mainly by sight in the clear water.
Estuaries
The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean is called an estuary. Most estuaries are bordered by extensive coastal wetlands called mudflats and saltmarshes. Nutrients from rivers enrich estuarine waters, making estuaries one of the most biologically productive environments on Earth.
Major Oceanic Zones
Marine life is distributed according to depth of the water, degree of light penetration, distance from shore, and open water versus ocean floor.
intertidal zone
The area where land meets sea. This environment is alternately submerged and exposed by the twice-daily cycle of tides. Intertidal organisms are therefore subject to huge daily variations in: (a) the availability of seawater, (b) the nutrients it carries, (c) temperature, and (d) mechanical forces of wave action.
pelagic realms/ zone
It supports communities dominated by motile animals such as fishes, squids, and marine mammals, including whales and dolphins. Microscopic algae and cyanobacteria—the phytoplankton—drift passively in the pelagic zone.
Phytoplankton
are the ocean's main photosynthetic producers . Zooplankton: are animals that drift in the pelagic zone.
benthic zone
The seafloor is the benthic zone. Depending on depth and light penetration, it consists of attached algae, fungi, bacteria, sponges, burrowing worms, sea anemones, clams, crabs, and fishes.
photic zone
Marine biologists often group the illuminated regions of the benthic and pelagic communities together as the photic zone. aphotic zone: the most extensive part of the biosphere. Photosynthetic organisms do not live here. Sea urchins, polychaete worms, and some fishes scavenge organic matter that sinks from the lighted waters above. hydrothermal vent: communities, powered by chemical energy from Earth's interior rather than sunlight.
Coral Reef Biome
The coral reef biome occurs in the photic zone of warm tropical waters, in scattered locations around the globe.
Terrestrial biomes are primarily determined by
Temperature and Rainfall
Temperate zones
occur in latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle
Mountains affect climate in two major ways
air temperature drops as elevation increases. mountains can Block the flow of cool, moist air from a coast
Terrestrial Biomes
Terrestrial ecosystems are grouped into biomes primarily on the basis of their vegetation type.
Climograph
is a visual representation of the differences in: Precipitation, Temperature ranges that characterize terrestrial biomes, Tropical Forest
Tropical forests
occur in equatorial areas, where the temperature is warm, and where days are 11-12 hours long year- round.
Savannas
Are dominated by grasses and scattered trees, Are warm year-round, Experience rainfall (roughly 12-20 inches per year) with dramatic seasonal variation
Deserts
Are the driest of all biomes, May be very hot or very cold
Chaparral
has a climate that results from cool ocean currents circulating offshore and producing mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.
Temperate grasslands
are mostly treeless, Have 10-30 inches of rain per year, Experience frequent droughts and fires, Are characterized by grazers including bison and pronghorn in North America
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
Occurs throughout midlatitudes where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees, Includes dense stands of deciduous trees in the Northern Hemisphere
Coniferous forests
Are dominated by cone-bearing evergreen trees. Include the northern coniferous forest, or taiga, the largest terrestrial biome on Earth
Temperate rain forests
Are found along coastal North America from
Tundra
Covers expansive areas of the Arctic between the taiga and polar ice. Is characterized by Permafrost (permanently frozen subsoil). Bitterly cold temperatures. High winds . Polar ice covers the land at high latitudes north of the arctic
Population ecology focuses on the factors that influence
a population's size (number of individuals), growth rate, and density (number of individuals per unit area).
Population density
is the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume, for example, the number of oak trees per square kilometer (km2) or the number of earthworms per cubic meter (m3) in the forest's soil.
How is population density measured?
Rarely are all individuals counted in a defined area. Sample plots are often used instead.
The mark-recapture method
is commonly used to estimate wildlife populations. Animals are trapped within the boundaries of the population. The trapped animals are marked and released. After a few days or a few weeks, enough time for the marked individuals to mix randomly with unmarked members of the population, animals from the same population are trapped again. From these data, the total number of individuals in the population can be estimated.
Clumped patterns
occur when individuals are aggregated in patches. Clumping is the most common pattern in nature. Clumping often results from an unequal distribution of resources in the environment or with mating or other social behavior. Examples are schooling fish and mosquitoes swarming to increase chances for mating.
Uniform patterns
result from interactions among individuals of a population. Creosote bushes in the desert tend to be uniformly spaced because their roots compete for water and dissolved nutrients. Birds nesting on small islands often exhibit uniform spacing.
Random dispersion
results when individuals in a population are spaced in a patternless, unpredictable way. This only occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals in a population. Clams living in a coastal mudflat might be randomly dispersed at times of the year when they are not breeding, when resources are plentiful and do not affect their distribution.
The age structure
of a population is the proportion of individuals in different age groups. Age structure can help us predict the future growth of populations in different countries. The combination of the birth rate and immigration exceeds the death rate. Immigration (legal and illegal combined) now contributes about 40% of the current growth of the U.S. population. Researchers predict that the U.S. population will continue to grow from about 280 million today to about 390 million by 2050.
A life table
tracks survivorship and mortality (death) in a population .
A survivorship curve
is a plot of the number of people still alive at each age. We can classify survivorship curves for diverse organisms into three general types.
Type I survivorship curves
have low death rates during the beginning and middle of life but increasing steadily in old age, and are characteristic of humans and many other large mammals that produce relatively few offspring but provide them with good care.
Type II survivorship curves
have even mortality over the life span, and are characteristic of species such as several invertebrates, including hydras, and certain rodents, such as the gray squirrel.
Type III survivorship curves
have high death rates for the very young but lower rates for those few individuals who survive, and are characteristic of species such as oysters that produce large numbers of offspring but provide little or no care for them.
Some key life history traits affecting population growth are
the age at which reproduction first occurs, the number of offspring produced for each reproductive episode, the amount of parental care committed to offspring, and the overall energy cost of reproduction.
Opportunistic life
histories usually have a Type III survivorship curve. Individuals reproduce when young and produce many offspring. Populations typically live in an unpredictable environment and are controlled by density- independent factors such as the weather. The life histories of many insects fit this pattern.
Equilibrial life histories
usually have a Type I survivorship curve. Individuals usually mature later and produce fewer offspring but care for their young. The population size may be quite stable, maintaining the carrying capacity by density-dependent factors. The life histories of many large terrestrial vertebrates, such as polar bears, and the coconut palm tree fit this model.
The Exponential Growth Model
The Ideal of an Unlimited Environment, The rate of expansion of a population under ideal, unregulated conditions is described by the exponential growth model, in which the whole population multiplies by a constant factor during constant time intervals. The constant factor for the bacterial population represented in Figure 18.18 is 2, because each parent cell splits to produce two daughter cells. The generation time for these bacteria is 20 minutes. The progression for bacterial growth—2, 4, 8, 16, and so on—is the number 2 raised to a successively higher power (exponent) each generation (that is, 21, 22, 23, 24, and so on). A key feature of the exponential growth equation is that the rate at which a population grows depends on the number of individuals already in the population. Exponential growth is rare in the real world. Where it is found, it is generally a short-lived consequence of organisms being introduced to a new or underexploited environment
The Logistic Growth Model
The Reality of a Limited Environment, The logistic growth model is a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors.
Carrying capacity
is the number of individuals in a population that the environment can just maintain ("carry") with no net increase or decrease. (1) For the fur seal population in Figure 19.6, for instance, the carrying capacity is about 10,000 mated males. (2) At carrying capacity, the population is as big as it can theoretically get in its environment.
intraspecific competition
competition between individuals of the same species for the same limited resources. As the population size increases, the competition becomes more intense, and growth rate declines in proportion to the intensity of competition. The population growth rate is density-dependent.
A density-dependent factor
is a population -limiting factor whose effects intensify as the population increases in size. Such factors depress a population's growth rate by increasing the death rate, decreasing the birth rate, or both. Examples are: (1) limited food supply and (2) a build-up of poisonous wastes.
Density-Independent Factors
Population-limiting factors whose intensities are unrelated to population density are called density-independent factors. Examples include weather, fires, and freezing temperatures/killing frosts.
Population ecology is used to
Increase populations of organisms we wish to harvest, Decrease populations of pests, Save populations of organisms threatened with extinction
An endangered species
as one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
A threatened species
as one that is likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future A major factor in population decline is habitat destruction or modification.
An invasive species
Is a non-native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction. Causes environmental or economic damage by colonizing and dominating suitable habitats
Biological control
Is the intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population, Is used to manage an invasive species
Coevolution
Evolutionary changes such as these, in which an adaptation of one species leads to a counter adaptation in a second species
Population momentum
is the continuation of population growth as girls in the prereproductive age group reach their reproductive years.
An ecological footprint
is an estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a population consumes, including, Food, Fuel, Water, Housing, Waste disposal
species richness
the total number of different species in the community and the relative abundance of the different species.
species diversity
as used by ecologists, considers both diversity factors—richness and relative abundance
Biodiversity has three main components
the genetic variation within each species, the variety of species that make up the biological community of any ecosystem, the diversity of ecosystems—each ecosystem has- a unique biological community and characteristic patterns of energy flow and chemical cycling. Some ecosystems are being erased from the biosphere at an astonishing rate.
The Four Main Causes of the Biodiversity Crisis
Habitat Destruction, Introduced Species, Overexploitation, Pollution
Vegetation has two properties
the type of plants that are dominant and the structure of the plants.
A community's stability refers to the ability to
resist change and return to its original species composition after being disturbed.
Stability depends on
the type of community and the nature of disturbances.
The trophic structure
is the feeding relationships among the various species making up the community.
A community's trophic structure determines
the passage of energy and nutrients from plants and other photosynthetic organisms to herbivores and then to carnivores.
Interspecific interactions
are interactions between species. Interspecific competition may result when populations of two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting resources.
limiting resource
As a population's density increases and nears carrying capacity, every individual has access to a smaller share of some limiting resource (food and water for example)
G. F. Gause
In 1934, Russian ecologist G. F. Gause studied the effects of interspecific competition. He used laboratory cultures of two closely related species of protists, Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum. When cultured separately, each population grew rapidly and then leveled off at the apparent carrying capacity. But when cultured together, P. caudatum was driven to extinction. Gause concluded that: (1) When two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place. This is known as the competitive exclusion principle.
The Ecological Niche
The sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment is the species' ecological niche.
Resource Partitioning
There are two possible outcomes of competition between species having identical niches- either the less competitive species will be driven to local extinction, or one of the species may evolve enough to use a different set of resources. The differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a local is called resource partitioning.
Predation
the consumer is called the predator, and the food species is the prey.
Herbivory
the eating of plants by animals, is a form of predation, even in cases such as grazing when the animal does not kill the whole plant. strychnine: produced by a tropical vinecalled Strychnos Toxifera:
Morphine
from the opium poppy;
Nicotine
produced by the tobacco plant;
Mescaline
from peyote cactus; and
Tannins
from a variety of plant species.
Fleeing
is a common antipredator response, though it can be very expensive energetically.
Other behavioral defenses include
alarm calls, mobbing, and distraction displays.
Camouflage, or cryptic coloration
is a passive defense that makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background.
Animals with chemical defenses
are often brightly colored, a caution to predators known as warning coloration.
In Batesian mimicry
a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model.
In Müllerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.
keystone predator
is a species that: reduces the density of the strongest competitors a community. The predator helps maintain species diversity by preventing competitive exclusion of weaker competitors.
Parasitism
exists if one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, which is harmed in the process. Parasitism is a specialized form of predation. There are internal and external parasites. Tapeworms and the protists that cause malaria are internal parasites. Mosquitoes and aphids are external parasites. Natural selection has refined the relationships between parasites and their hosts. Many parasites have adapted to specific hosts, often a single species. Natural selection has also favored the evolution of host defenses. In humans and other vertebrates, an elaborate immune system helps defend the body against specific internal parasites. The eventual outcome is usually a relatively stable relationship that does not kill the host quickly.
Mutualism
is a symbiosis that benefits both partners. the root-fungus associations called mycorrhizae, the specific interactions between certain pollinators and flowering plants, and the relationship between acacia trees and ants that protect these trees from herbivorous insects and competing plants.
Primary succession
occurs when a community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil.
Secondary succession
occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing community but left the soil intact.
Energy flow
is the passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem. Energy enters most ecosystems as light. Producers convert the light energy to the chemical energy of food. Other organisms feed on plants or organisms that eat plants. Decomposers consume the dead remains of life. In using their chemical energy for work, all organisms dissipate heat energy to their surroundings.
Chemical cycling
is the use and reuse of chemical elements, such as carbon, within the ecosystem.
Plants and other producers
acquire their carbon, nitrogen, and other chemical elements from the air and soil and convert these inorganic elements into organic compounds (carbohydrates and proteins) using photosynthesis. Animals feed on these organic compounds. The metabolism of all organisms returns some of the chemical elements to the abiotic environment in inorganic form. Decomposers finish recycling.
Conservation biology
is a goal-oriented science that seeks to counter the loss of biodiversity.
Conservation biologists
recognize that biodiversity can be sustained only if the evolutionary mechanisms that have given rise to species and communities of organisms continue to operate. Thus, the goal is- not simply to preserve individual species, but to sustain ecosystems, where natural selection can continue to function, and to maintain the genetic variability upon which natural selection acts.
A biodiversity hot spot
is a relatively small area with an exceptional concentration of species. nearly 30% of all bird species are confined to only about 2% of Earth's land area, and about 50,000 plant species, or 20% of all known plant species, inhabit 18 hot spots that make up only about 0.5% of the global land surface. (1) include rain forests and dry shrub lands that total less than 1.5% of Earth's land but are home to1/3 of all species of plants and vertebrates.
Landscape ecology
is the application of ecological principles to the study of land-use patterns.
Edges
between ecosystems are prominent features of landscapes, both natural and human-altered. Edges may have their own- (1) sets of physical conditions, (2) type and amount of disturbance, and (3) communities of organisms. Edges can have both positive and negative effects on biodiversity. They can be important sites of speciation but human-produced edges often- have fewer species and are dominated by species, such as cowbirds, that are adapted to edges.
movement corridor
is a narrow strip or series of small clumps of quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches.