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Terms in this set (52)
His experiment assessed how role playing affects attitudes. In the study, male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a guard role or prisoner role to be carried out in a mock prison. The guards were told only to maintain order, but within two days the guards began to act cruelly without reason and prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress. The experiment had to be cut short. There were no long term, but the experiment changed ethical standards for experimentation.
Notable for his work in sensation and difference thresholds. His principle that two stimuli, to perceive their difference, must be a constant proportion and not a constant amount - Weber's Law.
Proposed that one's language and grammar patterns shape one's view of reality - linguistic relativity.
Established the first psychology laboratory at the Germany, where introspection was used. He focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings, which is known as structuralism.
Edward L. Thorndike
Widely known for the law of effect - the principle that rewarded behavior is likely to recur and punished behavior is unlikely to recur. This principle was the basis for BF Skinner's behavioral technology.
Most famous for his studies on behavioral psychology, and studied latent learning. He is known for his study of learning with rats in mazes.
Established the idea of behaviorism. Recommended the study of behavior without reference to non-observable mental processes. Conducted the 'Little Albert' experiment where he proved classical conditioning. He presented the child with a white rat and a loud noise and the child soon became afraid of the rat.
Studied iconic sensory memory. Showed people a group of letters quickly, then asked them to repeat the letters. Participants could generally recall 4-5 of the nine letters, but could recite a row when prompted. He believed that all 9 letters were stored immediately, then were quickly forgotten.
Distinguished among 3 aspects of intelligence: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. Contributed to the idea that there is more to creativity than that which intelligence tests reveal.
Revised Alfred Binet's earlier tests and invented that Stanford-Binet IQ Tests. Believed that children who scored high on his IQ tests were gifted and more likely to become society's leaders in adulthood. Felt also that the results proved that black men intelligence was inferior to the intelligence of white men.
Experiment tested the validity of psychiatric diagnosis of insanity. Sent fake patients who pretended to have disorders to mental hospitals, and they were treated for months after reporting feeling fine. Showed that doctors can't distinguish between the sane from the insane in such environments.
Famous for theorizing about learned helplessness. Found that dogs who had been shocked continuously would not escape even when given the ability to do so.
Responsible for the idea of General Adaptation Syndrome. First is the alarm reaction in which we fight or flight. Second is resistance - resistance of stress is built. The body enters the third stage of exhaustion after long periods of stress. This stage is most hazardous to your health and has long term effects.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer
Developed the two factor theory of emotion which simply states that emotions are comprised of physical arousal and a cognitive label. Emotional experience requires conscious interpretation of the arousal. Experimented this with college students and epinephrine.
Operant conditioning and Skinner's Box. Sought to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences.
Believed that only one type of intelligence exists - general intelligence. This is tested on a standard IQ test.
Studied the cognitive development of children. Defined 4 stages of cognitive development - sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
Humanistic psychologist who used the theory of self-concept. Developed client-centered therapy.
Rorschach Inkblot Test - designed to reflect unconscious parts of the personality that 'project' onto the stimuli.
Founded Humanistic Psychology, which focused on the individual and self-directed choices that influenced behavior. Developed the hierarchy of needs.
Most famous experiment involved the 'Shock' Experiment. Proved that people will do things mainly because an authority figure had prompted them to do so - Obedience.
His experiments with dogs led him to discover classical conditioning. Spontaneous recovery and extinction were discovered as well.
William James and Carl Lange
James-Lange theory of emotion. Emotions occur because of psychological reactions to events.
Neo-Freudian, believed in Freud's 'personal unconscious', and humans have a collective unconscious. Studied persona as well.
Garcia and Koelling
Discovered taste aversion when looking at effects of radiation on rats. (Rats became nauseous from radiation, and water was accidentally paired with it. They then developed aversion to water.)
3 Moral Development Stages - Preconventional, conditional morality, and post-conventional.
Worked in the study of false memory formation and the misinformation effect. Car crash experiment.
Rediscovered imprinting, which famously included Lorenz acting as a mother-figure for Mallard Ducks. Also recognized the critical period for attachment.
Believed that Kohlberg's theory of moral development was male-centered and boys are more likely to apply moral rules to all contexts where girls are more likely to consider relationships when making a decision.
Raised monkeys with two artificial mothers. One represented nourishment, the other contact/comfort. Discovered that monkeys would feed from harsh mom with the food, but quickly return to soft cloth mom for a safe/secure base. Humans act the same way.
Famous for his work in emotional intelligence. Believes that EQ may be more indicative to a person's success in life than academic IQ.
Father of cognitive therapy who specializes in clinical depression. Developed the cognitive triad of depression: people who are depressed have negative thoughts about themselves, their future, and the world in which they live.
Believed a person's personality could be organized into three levels of traits: cardinal traits that dominate a person's behavior, central traits that are general characteristics of behavior, and secondary traits seen only in certain circumstances.
Famous for the bobo-doll study and explained the social learning theory. It sparked many more studies about the effects of violent media upon children.
A psychologist and philosopher who had a major influence on the development of psychology in the US. First to teach a psychology course in the US and is often referred to as the father of American psychology. Known for contributing to functionalism, one of the earliest schools of thought in psychology. His book, 'Principles of Psychology', is considered one of the most classic and influential in psychology's history.
A Neo-Freudian who focused on parenting styles, and also emphasized inferiority. Stated that when we are born, we start off weak then strive to overcome these deficiencies by becoming superior to those around us - a driving force behind human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors - and it is possible to develop an inferiority complex.
Famous for her work in early emotional attachment with 'The Strange Situation' Experiment. The child's reactions are observed while playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's' lives. The effects vary in stressfulness.
Developed the idea of 'nature vs. nurture'. Studied genetics and how they affect individualism. He believed that nature was the most important part of the debate.
Best known for his research on hypnosis. Creator of hypnosis theory of a "hidden observer" where a person undergoing hypnosis can observe his/her pain without feeling any actual suffering.
A railroad worker who had a large iron rod go through his left frontal lobe while working. He became a very angry person after his accident. His case concluded that specific areas of the brain affect personality.
Developed psychotherapeutic approach known as the rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), which aims to overcome irrational beliefs and unrealistic expectations-taught to eliminate self-defeating thoughts while focusing on those that were beneficial.
A neo-Freudian; most famous for his stages in psychosocial development , which are based on Freud's 5 stages. Each of the 8 stages includes a crisis that could go one of two ways. Ex: trust v.s. mistrust in babies.
Stated intelligence was largely inherited and believed that all personality traits could be summarized by these two dimensions, which were called super traits. They are called extroversion(introversion) and emotional stability or neuroticism(instability).
Famous for creating the forgetting curve. States that we forget the most information within the first 20 minutes, then an hour, then a day. The forgetting curve is exponential, just like the learning curve.
Created theory of multiple intelligences that opposed Spearman's idea of one general intelligence. Believed there are 8 smarts, which are language smarts, logic smarts, music smarts, spatial smarts, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and nature.
Know as father of modern psychology and psychoanalysis. Believed unconscious determines everything we do. Theories included the ideas of stages of psychosexual development and the three parts of the mind(id, ego, superego). Believed that dreams, free association, hypnosis could reveal unconscious mind.
Neo-Freudian, named parental indifference the true culprit behind neurosis and said the key to understanding this phenomenon is the child's perception. Children can overcome Oedipus Complex if they have loving parents.
Physician who reported that after damage to the Broca's area of the left frontal lobe, a person would have trouble forming words but would still be able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech.
Studied facial expressions and how they reflected emotions. Believed there were 6 basic emotions that were universal and expressed the same way in any culture. (Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.)
One of the fathers of modern linguistics. His theory of generative grammar emphasizes universal grammar. His view was contrasting B.F. Skinner's - he thought that certain aspects of linguistic knowledge were innate.
Best known for his discovery of 16 underlying personality traits and his methods for measuring the traits. These are known as the 16 personality factor model and the 16 PF questionnaire. Also used factor analysis.
A French psychologist that came up with the first widely used intelligence test. He was hired by the French public school system to find children that needed special help. First used the IQ formula, and influenced today's widely accepted intelligence test (Stanford-Binet test).
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