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64 terms

Test Chp 4&5

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Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds
Methane
CH4
Ethane
C2H6
Ethene
C2H4
Hydrocarbons
Organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
Structural Isomers
Compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
Isomers
Compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties
Geometric Isomers
Compounds that have the same covalent partnershipds, but differ in spatial arrangements
Enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other
Functional Groups
Components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
Hydroxyl
-OH, Alcohol, ex. ethanol, polar, hydrophylic
Carbonyl
=CO, keytones & aldehydes, ex. acetone & propanal
Carboxyl
-COOH, acids, ex. acetic acid, covalent, polar
Amino
-NH2, amines, ex. glycine, a base
Sulfhydryl
-SH, thiols, ex. ethanethiol, stabilize proteins
Phosphate
-OPO3, organic phosphates, ex. glycerol phosphate, makes anions
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An organic phosphate, primary energy-transforming molecule in the cell
Macromolecule
A large molecule consisting of thousands of covalently connected atoms
Polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Monomer
The repeating unit that serves as the building block for polymers
Condensation Reaction
Connection by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule
Dehydration Reaction
Same as condensation reaction
Hydrolysis
A process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction
Carbohydrates
Includes both sugars and the polymers of sugars. Serve as fuel and building material
Monosaccharides
Single sugars, ex. glucose
Disaccharide
Consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
Glycosidic Linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides
Glucose + Glucose =
Maltose
Glucose + Glucose =
Sucrose
Polysaccharides
Macromolecules, serve as storage material
Starch
Storage polysaccharide for plants, consists of glucose monomers
Glycogen
A polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more excessively branched
Cellulose
A major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
Chitin
The carbohydrate used by arthropods to build exoskeletons
Fat
Constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids
Fatty Acids
A long carbon skeleton, with usually 16-18 carbons, at the end has a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon
Triacylglycerol
When three fatty acid molecules each join to glycerol by an ester linkage
Ester linkage
A bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group
Saturated Fatty Acid
When there are no double bonds between the carbon in the chains, allowing as many hydrogen atoms as possible
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Has one or more double bonds formed by the removal of hydrogen. Has a kink in the hydrocarbon chain
Phospholipid
Two fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three
Steroids
Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Cholesterol
A steriod that is a common component of animal cell membranes
Enzymes
Most important type of protein, regulate metabolism
Catalyst
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions in the cell
Polypeptides
Polymers of amino acids
Protein
Consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into conformations
Amino acids
Organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups
Peptide bond
A covalent bond between two amino acids
Primary structure
A protein's unique sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure
The result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone
alpha helix
a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
Disulfide bridges
The conformation of a protein reinforced further by covalent bonds
Denaturation
When a protein unravels and loses its native conformation
Chaperonins
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
X-ray crystallography
An important method used to determine a protein's three dimensional structure
Deoxyribonucliec Acid
Provides directions for its own replication, directs RNA synthesis, controls protein synthesis
Ribonuclieac Acid
The messenger of DNA
Polynucleotides
Macromolecules that exist as polymers
Nucleotides
Make up polynuceotides
Pyrimidine
A six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Purines
Larger than pyrimidine, a sic membered ring or carbon and nitrogen fused to a five membered ring
Ribose
Pentose connected to the nitrogenous base in RNA
Deoxyribose
Pentose connected to the nitrogenous base in DNA