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Terms in this set (50)
A measure of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation
Stomach and bladder
Fat soluble vitamins
A, d, e, k. Can cause toxicity
Short term regulation of hunger
CCK, ghrelin, insulin, glucagon like peptide 1, glucagon
Long term regulation of hunger
Blood glucose and leptin
Lack of protein and calories
Adequate calories with a
Malnutrition in the us
Cystic fibrosis, short-gut syndrome, and chronic diarrhea.
135-145. Regulates extra cellular fluid volume and osmolality.
What forces work to keep blood in the capillary
Capillary COP and tissue hydrostatic pressure.
Why would retaining sodium cause high BP?
Because there is an increase in osmotic pressure and therefore an increase of fluid in the serum.
May be due to nephrotic kidney disease or extreme malnutrition.
Results in hypernatremia
Results in hyponatremia
Signs of hyponatremia
Cramps, weakness, and headache.
Signs of hypernatremia
Thirst headache and agitation.
Determined by BUN, Na, and glucose
Fluid volume excess
Hypotonic is most common
3.5-5.0. Controls the resting potential. Moves with glucose.
Constipation, fatigue, weakness, dig toxicity, and alkalosis. Diuretics. Prominent u and prolonged pr interval.
Weakness, diarrhea, risk of cardiac arrest. Acidosis. Tented t wave and widened qrs.
8.5-10.5 (ionized 4.6-5.5). Abnormal albumin level may warrant an ionized Ca test. Controls membrane threshold.
PTH stimulates the bone to release Ca, kidneys to decrease Ca excretion and increase phosphate elimination, activates vitamin D to facilitate Ca absorption. Strong inverse relationship with phosphate.
Lower threshold, nerves fire more easily. Trousseaus and Chvostek sign.
Higher threshold, nerves are less able to fire.
2.5-4.5. Has the same manifestations as calcium.
Causes of respiratory acidosis
Drug overdose, head injury/apnea, bronchial asthma, bronchitis.
Causes of metabolic acidosis
Lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, fasting and starvation, alcoholic ketoacidosis, diarrhea and
Causes of respiratory alkalosis
Hyperventilation, lung lesions, stimulation of the respiratory center, and mechanical ventilation.
Causes of metabolic alkalosis
Increase in basic contents of stomach, transfusion with citrate blood, ecf volume deficit.
Iron deficiency anemia
Most common. Hypo chronic and microcytic erythrocytes. Adults are almost always due to blood loss, peds may be diet related
Megaton lactic anemias
Cobalamin (b12) deficiency, pernicious anemia, folic acid deficiency
May be seen in COPD and cyanosis heart defects.
Increased erythropoietin. Polycythemia Vera affects the entire myeloid line. puts you at a greater risk for stroke and MI.
Type 1 hypersensitivity
Must have IgE. Allergic, atopic, and anaphylactic reactions. Bronchospasm is heard upon exhalation with a stethoscope.
Type 2 hypersensitivity
Antibodies- ie transfusions, graves, myasthenia gravis, and good pasture syndrome.
Type 3 hypersensitivity
Free floating antigen and antibody complex. Lupus, glomerulonephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Type 4 hypersensitivity
No antibodies, sensitized T cells. tb test, allergic contact dermatitis i.e.-nickel and poison ivy.
Less than 1500 uL.
Circulating antibodies against the graft.
T cells and antibodies against the graft.
Blood vessels in the graft are gradually damaged.
Genetic- humoral (b cell), T cell, severe combined immondeficiencies, and wiskott Aldrich syndrome.
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