Create an account
In which structure is oxygenated blood mixed with unoxygenated blood to support the functions of the structure?
Why is an alkaline environment required in the duodenum?
Activation of intestinal and pancreatic enzymes
What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?
the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis includes atrophy of the gastric mucosa with decreased secretions
Why does severe stress lead to peptic ulcer?
Reduced blood flow to the gastric wall and mucous glands, and reduced motility, leading to stasis of chyme and increasing glucocorticoid effects.
What would result from a perforated gastric ulcer?
Chemical peritonitis would result from a perforated gastric ulcer
What would be a result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
Occult blood in the stool and anemia
What are some causes of gastric carcinoma?
Ingestion of smoked foods, genetic factors, ingestion of foods preserved with nitrates
Why does mild hyperbilirubinemia occur in newborns?
The immature liver cannot process bilirubin quickly
What is a major result of a gallstone obstructing the cystic duct?
Severe colicky pain in the upper right quadrant
Following a cholecystectomy, what happens to bile that is produced?
Small amounts of bile are continuously secreted and flow into the duodenum
What condition is indicated if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?
Chronic infection is present
Long term exposure to a hepatotoxin would result in what?
Gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis
Why is an increased tendency to bleed associated with cirrhosis?
Deficit of Vitamin K and prothrombin
What changes are seen in serum bilirubin in a patient with cirrhosis?
Increased conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin
What factors lead to ascites in patients with cirrhosis?
Increased aldosterone and deficit of albumin leads to ascites in patients with cirrhosis.
What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?
Accumulation of fat in hepatocytes with hepatomegaly
What are some causes of hepatic cancer?
Metastatic tumors, chronic hepatitis, and exposure to certain chemicals
What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?
Activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis.
Why does chemical peritonitis and shock frequently result from acute pancreatitis?
Acute pancreatitis leads to inflammation and increased vascular permeability of the peritoneum, which affects fluid balance, leading to chemical peritonitis and shock.
What are the typical changes occurring in the GI tract in Crohn's Disease?
Inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas
Why do fistulas form with Crohn's Disease?
Recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forms connections between intestinal loops
What do the stools of patients with ulcerative colitis look like?
Stools that are liquid with mucus, frank blood, and pus
What result would you see if the sigmoid colon was obstructed because of diverticulitis?
Small, hard stool
What causes the localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant in acute appendicitis?
Local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum
Why does localized peritonitis develop from acute appendicitis prior to rupture?
Intestinal bacteria escape through the necrotic appendiceal wall
Why does a volvulus cause localized gangrene in the intestine?
The mesenteric arteries are compressed in the twisted section of intestine
Why does hypovolemic shock develop with intestinal obstruction?
Vomiting and fluid shift into the intestine
Why does dehydration cause acidosis?
Hypovolemia and lactic acid production caused by dehydration leads to acidosis.
Why does dehydration limit compensation for acid-base imbalance that results from prolonged vomiting and diarrhea?
Hypovolemia limits renal function
Why do deficiencies if vitamins A, D, and K occur in patients with cirrhosis?
Decreased production of bile
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together