84 terms

earth in film exam 2

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What were the conditions that allowed life to start
Small organic molecules that serve as building blocks of life can be formed by nonliving mechanisms
What are the three main branches of early life
Bacteria, eukaryote and archaea
What experiment was done that simulated early conditions on Earth
Stanley Miller's experiments showed that amino acids form in reaction chambers designed to simulate early Earth
What's DNA
is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms
Its stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)
Whats RNA
act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins
cyclic
one stage process, does not produce oxygen
non-cyclic
two stage process, produces oxygen
prokaryote cells
No nucleus
Single coiled chromosome with few associated proteins
Bacterial cell wall
No organelles
eukaryote cells
DNA in nucleus
Chromosomes with many proteins (histones) No cell wall
Organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts)
how did eukaryote cells develop
arose after evolution of the non-cylic pathway of photosynthesis in some prokaryotes put oxygen into the air
what is banded iron
During the Archean and early Proterozoic Eons, the deep oceans had large volumes of iron.
This combined with oxygen, possibly produced by photosynthetic microorganisms, to produce iron oxides along the continental margins
what does banded iron tell us about the early environment
indicate the early presence of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere and ocean
stromatolites
Earth's oldest of fossils and indicators of early photosynthesis on this planet. They are mats of cynobacteria.
what is chloroplast
energy of the cell
What is a species
naturally occurring populations that interbreed and produce viable fertile offspring
What is biodiversity
The degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or an entire planet
How many species are on the planet
10-30 million insects
5-10 million bacteria
1.5 million fungi
1 million mites
How to measure biodiversity
Richness vs. diversity indices
Vicariance
factors relating to geographical separation
Allopatry
living in different regions
Endemism
species unique to a specific region
Alpha Diversity
the diversity within a particular area or ecosystem
Beta diversity
comparing the species diversity between ecosystems or along environmental gradient
Gamma diversity
the total species richness over a large area or region
What is a niche
The combination of physical, behaviorial and biological requirements for a species to survive
Fundamental niche
Complete range a species could live
Realized niche
The studied habitat attributes of an organism
Preferred niche
An understanding of habitat preference
Steno
founder of geology and stratigraphy
Lyell
known as the author of Principles of Geology
Hutton
Scottish geologist, physician, naturalist, chemist, experimental farmer
Playfair
Scottish mathematician and natural philosopher
Owen
first named dinosaurs
What is Uniformitarianism
Processes are continuous
Rocks form now as they always have
Emphasized stratigraphy
What is Paleontology
The study of ancient life and its remains
two types of fossils
body and trace
body fossils
remains of organisims
trace fossils
footprints, nests, feeding marks
What are sedimentary rocks
Naturally formed horizontal layers
Original horizonality
strata are deposited under gravity, they form horizontal layers. If the strata are no longer horizontal, something has disturbed the sediments AFTER they became rocks
Superposition
the strata at the bottom of a stack were deposited first, the ones on top of that are next oldest, and so on, with the youngest strata being the ones on top
Cross-cutting
any structure which cuts across or otherwise deforms strata is necessarily younger than the rocks and structures it cuts across or deforms
3 time periods of Mesozoic Era
Triassic (251-199.6 million years ago)
Jurassic (199.6-145.5 million years ago)
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 million years ago)
What were the changes in plant communities during the Mesozoic?
The early Mesozoic was dominated by unusual plants.
Modern gymnosperms, such as conifers, first appeared in their current recognizable forms in the early Triassic.
By the middle of the Cretaceous, the earliest angiosperms had appeared and began to diversify, largely taking over from the other plant groups
Amniotes divide into two major divisions
Synapsida, represented today only by mammals
Sauropsida represented today by turtles, lizards, crocodylians, and birds
What were some early dinosaurs
Nyasasaurus
Eoraptor
Eodromaeus
what increase during the Cretaceous
Angiosperms and insects
Two major groups of dinosaurs
Saurischia: lizard hip
Ornithischia: bird hip
Problems in Jurassic Park
1. Amber from Dominican Republic is not old enough, it only has fossilized leaves and insects
2. Bones are a perfect skeleton, all intact, under a thin layer of dirt that can be brushed away
3.Radar Pulse not that easy to use
4. Velociraptor is smaller and has feathers despite how it is depicted in the film
5. TRex doesn't move that fast
6. Many dinosaurs weren't from the Jurassic period
Facts in Jurassic Park
1. Dinosaurs had more in common with present day birds
2. Warm bloodedness in dinosaurs
3. T. Rex appearance plausible
4. Animals do change sex
Punctuated equilibrium
the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change
Evidence for the extinction of dinosaurs
shocked quartz, tektites, ring of cenotes, Chicxululb Crater
Shocked Quartz
Created only under extremely high pressure and temperature
Chicxululb Crater
Oceanographic measurements suggested that a crater-like feature existed on the floor of the Gulf of Mexico suggesting a strike point near the coast of the Yucatan Penninsula
Cenotes
sinkholes formed in limestone by rapid erosion
What are Chondritic Meteorites
have not been modified due to melting. They are formed when various types of dust and small grains that were present in the early solar system accreted to form primitive asteroids
Evidence of massive meteorite hitting earth and other planets
Shoemaker-Levy comet hitting Jupiter, Tunguska event in Siberia, more recent strikes
What is a nuclear winter
into the longer-term effects of a potential all-out nuclear war.
Concluded that the huge amounts of dust and ash that would be thrown into the atmosphere, causing significant cooling of the planet over a long period of time
What are the Deccan Traps
largest, documentable lava flows in Earth's history
How does the lack of water influence geological processes on Venus
...
What are possible causes for the depletion of a previously thicker Martian atmosphere
collision
Gradual erosion by solar wind
Mars's low gravity allowed the atmosphere to "blow off" into space by gas-kinetic escape.
Earth features or processes that protect life here on earth
geomagnetism, water trap, greenhouse gases, plate tectonics and the stabilization of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, Albedo
Albedo
describes the reflectivity of an object
What is the Kelling Curve
graph showing change of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere
Paleoclimate
it changes
Carbon dioxide and temperature
correlate
How do we know past climates
ice cores, tree cores, coral cores, lake cores, speleothem
How do we know climate is currently changing
Glacier retreat, satellite measurements, historical records
What do you measure in ice cores
Atmospheric gas records (CO2)
What do you measure in lake cores
...
What is a mass extinction
When 50% of the population dies
The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction
is famed for the death of the dinosaurs
decline was due to flood basalt eruptions affecting the world's climate, combined with drastic falls in sea level
a huge asteroid or comet struck the seabed near the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico
What did the movie "Racing Extinction" focus on
Over exploitation of species through overfishing, exotic animal trade and over hunting
What is CITES
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
An international agreement between governments which aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival
How is climate change impacting species survival
Deforestation- loss of habitat
Ocean Acidification
Clearing of land for food production
What is ocean acidification
The absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean which changes the chemistry of seawater
What is one major issue not really addressed in the movie extinction
population
What are two of the best single actions to reduce environmental impacts and population issues
Educate and empower women
endemic
when a plant or animal is native or restricted to a certain area
allopatric
when a species becomes isolated from each other to the extent that it prevents genetic interchange
anthropocene
when human activities start to have a significant global impact on earths geology and ecosystem
Wallace Line
Line separating placental mammals from marsupials in South East Asia.
generalist
an animal that is able to eat a wide range of food items
why are there few fierce creatures
Trophic levels and the transfer of food energy to each level