Often includes the top half of the character and some background. Used to keep you focused on what the characters are doing, while giving you some extra information about the scene.
Used to place the characters in context. It shows where the scene is taking place. It gives us some of the landscape.
Extreme long shot
Used to show where the story is talking place eg: a city. Creates a sense that characters are disappearing in the landscape.
When the camera moves along the ground to follow the action used to keep the audience focused on the action.
When shot duration is short - one shot follows another quickly. Used for action sequences and to give a sense that things are happening quickly.
Sounds added to the soundtrack that do not come from the scene i.e. music, voiceovers. Music helps create mood. It can complement action or alert audience to impending action. Voiceovers are used to give information, anchor meaning and guide the audience.