Biology II Lecture: Chapter 31
Terms in this set (21)
All fungi share which of the following characteristics?
D) Act as decomposers
Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest and fungal evolution?
A) Parasitic lifestyle
B) Coenocytic hyphae
C) The absence of chitin within the cell wall
D) Flagellated spores
E) Formation of resistant zygosporangia
Which of the following cells or structures are associated with asexual reproduction in fungi?
The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen as often
A) A green alga
B) A moss
C) A small vascular plant
D) An ascomycete
E) A brown alga
Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi?
A) Slime molds
B) Brown algae
E) Vascular plants
In fungi, haploid hyphae fuse to produce dikaryotic and then diploid nuclei, only to restore the haploid condition by meiosis before the growth of new hyphar. What is the significance of a transient diploid state and fungi?
A) All organisms must reproduces sexually at some point in their life cycle.
B) These sexual processes generate genetic variation.
C) The diploid state is more advanced than the haploid state.
Which statement(s) correctly describe(s) The interactions between plants and fungi? Select all that apply.
A) Plants compete with fungi for access to soil nutrients.
B) Plants depend on fungi as mutualistic symbionts.
C) Plants are harmed by fungal pathogens.
Which of the following ecological roles is/are played by at least some fungi? Select all that apply.
Select the correct statement(s) about fungal life cycles.
A) Meiosis produces gametes in fungi.
B) In some fungi, plasmogamy preceds karyogamy by decades.
C) Fungi reproduce sexually but do not have male or female genders.
Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.
A) Fungi involved after the first plants colonized land.
B) Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.
C) Multicellularity probably arose independently and fungi and animals.
The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to
A) The increased probability of contact between different mating types.
B) Avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes.
C) The potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats.
D) The ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms.
E) An extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.
Which of the following is a difference between plants and fungi?
A) Fungi have cell walls.
B) Plants have diploid and haploid phases, and fungi have only haploid stages.
C) Fungi are strictly asexual, and plants undergo sexual reproduction.
D) Fungi or heterotrophic, and plants are autotrophic.
E) Plants produce spores.
Fungi obtain nutrients through ______.
The body of most fungi consists of threadlike ______, which form a network called a ______.
The diploid phase of the life cycle is shortest in which of the following?
What sexual processes and fungi generate genetic variation?
A) Budding and meiosis
B) Karyogamy and meiosis
C) Diploidy and the heterokaryotic condition
D) Plasmogamy and meiosis
E) Haustoria and karyogamy
An important example of interaction between fungi and certain other organisms is mycorrhizae, in which the fungal partners ______.
A) Sicken herbivores fact attempt to feed on plants
B) Control soil nematodes
C) Cause the decay of cellulose and lignin
D) Help plants take up nutrients and water
E) Provide carbohydrates to the plant partner
Almost all of the membranes of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae in a mutualistic partnership with plants.
Fungi of the phylum Ascomycota are recognized on the basis of their production of ______ during sexual reproduction.
B) A dikaryotic structure
C) Saclike structures
D) Flagellated zoospores
Fungi for mutualistic relationships with plants and animals. Which of the following is an example of such a relationship?
A) Fungi can help increase drought tolerance in plants.
B) Endophytes in leaves produce toxins that deter herbivores.
C) Fungi help break down wood in the guts of termites.
D) Fungi help break down plant material in the guts of grazing mammals.
E) All of the above.
From a human perspective, which of the following kinds of fungi would be considered the least useful or beneficial?
A) Mycorrhizal fungi