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Geology Exam 3
Terms in this set (46)
What is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface called?
What is the name for a basaltic lava flow that has a ropy, folded surface?
The eruption of vast quantities of superheated steam is called a ______.
Which volcanic environment will, on average, produce the most felsic lavas?
At what boundary within the Earth is believed that mantle plumes (hot spots) originate?
Mantle-outer core boundary
Small vents on volcanoes that emit gas fumes and steam are called ________.
The amount of ground displacement in an earthquake is called the ______.
What plate boundaries are associated with earthquake activity?
Convergent, divergent and transform
Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 100 km are associated with ______ plate boundaries.
What does the elastic rebound theory describe?
The build-up and release of stress during an earthquake
What type of seismic wave causes the most building damage?
The average time between large earthquake events along a fault is known as the ______ interval.
Which set(s) of waves travels through the Earth's interior?
Sets A and B
What type of seismic waves are S waves?
Shallow earthquakes, less than 20 km deep, are associated with ___________.
All of the above
What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth?
What type of seismic wave is depicted by the ray path in the diagram?
Which of the following statements about the Moho (Mohovoricic discontinuity) is false?
The Moho marks the top of a partially molten layer
What principle is based on the continents being less dense than the underlying mantle?
Which layer in the Earth does not transmit S waves?
Calculations suggest that the inner core __________.
spins at a faster rate than the rest of the Earth
Where is the Earth's magnetic field generated?
In the inner core
The Earth's magnetic field shields the surface of the Earth from _________.
What causes large-scale variations in the Earth's geoid?
Variations in gravity
If the Earth's atmosphere did not contain greenhouse gases, the Earth's surface would be __________.
Approximately 33°C cooler
What is the cryosphere?
Ice caps and glaciers
What is the Earth's albedo?
The fraction of solar energy reflected by the Earth's surface
Which of the following do we think has most dramatically changed the carbon cycle over the past 150 years?
Burning of fossil fuels
Which of the following processes removes carbon from the atmosphere?
The two most common chemical elements in the Earth's atmosphere are _______ and _______ .
Nitrogen and Oxygen
What is the general process by which rocks are broken down at the Earth's surface?
Which of the following statements about weathering is false?
The presence of soil slows down weathering of the underlying bedrock
Which of the following statements is false about mass movements?
Mass movements require wind or running water
Which of the following forces is the dominant cause of mass movement?
Solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air are called ______.
How many seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
The area on the surface of the Earth where P waves and S waves are not recorded by seimograms following an earthquake event are referred to as _______.
The Mercalli intensity scale measures ____.
The amount of destruction caused by an earthquake
What is a traveltime curve?
The graph of travel-time vs. distance
Based on seismic tomographic images, how deep do subducting slabs extend?
To the core-mantle boundary
Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
Which of the following minerals, present in a granite, is not altered by chemical weathering?
What minerals are responsible for the orange-brown colors of weathered surfaces in the desert?
The Milankovitch cycles are dependent on the Earth's ________.
Which of the following minerals is most likely to form a clay mineral during weathering?
Organic matter in the Earth's topsoil is called ___________.
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