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42 terms

Chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY
Light Microscopy
Visible light penetrates an object and is focused by glass lenses to form an image on the retina or on film.
Electron Microscopy
uses electrons instead of light, the shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution
Transmission Electron Microscope
focuses a bem of electrons through a specimen. Mainly used to study the internal structure of cells
Scanning Electron Microscope
focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D.
Organelles
tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
Cytosol
the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
Prokaryotic Cells
Lack Nucleus, Lack various internal structures bound with phospholipid membranes, Are Small, Have a simple structure, Include Bacteria and Archaea
Eukaryotic Cells
Have Nucleus, Have internal membrane bound organelles, Are Larger, More Complex Structure.
Plasma Membrane
a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell
Nucleus
Contains DNA in Eukaryotes
Nuclear Envelope
encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm
Chromosomes
Condensed Chromatin.
Chromatin
genetic material within the cell, formed by DNA and proteins
Nucleolus
located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RAN (rRNA) synthesis
Ribosomes
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein
ER
an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
Rough ER
with ribosomes studding its surface
Smooth ER
lacks ribosomes
Transport Vesicles
The Transport system of the cell, that regulates protein traffic and metabolic functions
Golgi Apparatus
Modifies products of the ER, Manufactures certain macromolecules, Sorts and Packages materials into transport vesicles.
Lysosomes
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules
Vacuoles
Storage for food and water
Mitochondrion
sits of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that generates ATP
Chloroplast
sites of photosynthesis
Cristae
inner membrane of mitochondria
Thylakoids
membranous sacs, stacked to form grana
Grana
thylakoids that are stacked
Cyoskeleton
a network of fibers that extends throughout the cytoplasm
Motor Proteins
produce motility
Microtubules
hollow rods about 26 nm in diameter and about 200 nm to 25 microns long
Cilia
hairlike locomotor appendage
Flagella
tailike locomotor appendage
Centrioles
...
Microfilaments
actin filaments
Actin
built as a twisted double chain of actin subunits
Myosin
microfilaments that function in cellular motility use this protein.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
Cell Wall
an extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells
Plasmodesmata
channels that perforate cell walls
Tight Junctions
here, membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid.
Desmosomes
fasten cells together into strong sheets
Gap Junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells