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Light Microscopy

Visible light penetrates an object and is focused by glass lenses to form an image on the retina or on film.

Electron Microscopy

uses electrons instead of light, the shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution

Transmission Electron Microscope

focuses a bem of electrons through a specimen. Mainly used to study the internal structure of cells

Scanning Electron Microscope

focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D.


tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive


the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended

Prokaryotic Cells

Lack Nucleus, Lack various internal structures bound with phospholipid membranes, Are Small, Have a simple structure, Include Bacteria and Archaea

Eukaryotic Cells

Have Nucleus, Have internal membrane bound organelles, Are Larger, More Complex Structure.

Plasma Membrane

a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell


Contains DNA in Eukaryotes

Nuclear Envelope

encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm


Condensed Chromatin.


genetic material within the cell, formed by DNA and proteins


located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RAN (rRNA) synthesis


particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein


an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed

Rough ER

with ribosomes studding its surface

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes

Transport Vesicles

The Transport system of the cell, that regulates protein traffic and metabolic functions

Golgi Apparatus

Modifies products of the ER, Manufactures certain macromolecules, Sorts and Packages materials into transport vesicles.


a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules


Storage for food and water


sits of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that generates ATP


sites of photosynthesis


inner membrane of mitochondria


membranous sacs, stacked to form grana


thylakoids that are stacked


a network of fibers that extends throughout the cytoplasm

Motor Proteins

produce motility


hollow rods about 26 nm in diameter and about 200 nm to 25 microns long


hairlike locomotor appendage


tailike locomotor appendage




actin filaments


built as a twisted double chain of actin subunits


microfilaments that function in cellular motility use this protein.

Cytoplasmic Streaming

a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells

Cell Wall

an extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells


channels that perforate cell walls

Tight Junctions

here, membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid.


fasten cells together into strong sheets

Gap Junctions

provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

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