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For the final

When performing a reassessment of your patient, you should first

repeat the primary assessment

In infants and small children, skin color should be assessed on the

palms and soles

While en route to the scene of a shooting, the dispatcher advises you that the caller states that the perpetrator has fled the scene. You should:

confirm this information with law enforcement personnel at the scene

In addition to looking for severe bleeding, assessment of circulation in the conscious patient should involve:

checking the radial pulse and noting the color, temperature, and condition of his or her skin

Which of the following MOST accurately describes paradoxical movement of the chest wall?

only one section of the chest rises on inspiration while another area falls

In responsive patients that are older than 1 year of age, you should palpate the pulse at the ________ artery.


Reassessment of a patient with a medical complaint should begin by

repeating the primary assessment.

The "Golden Period" begins when an injury occurs and ends when

the patient receives definitive care

Clinical signs of labored breathing include all of the following, EXCEPT:

shallow chest movement.

Which of the following statements regarding the blood pressure is correct

Blood pressure is usually not measured in children younger than 3 years of age.

The diastolic pressure represents the

minimum amount of pressure that is always present in the arteries.

After performing a head tilt-chin lift maneuver to open the airway of an unresponsive patient, you should

After performing a head tilt-chin lift maneuver to open the airway of an unresponsive patient, you should

You should suspect that a patient is experiencing respiratory failure if he or she

has bradycardia and diminished muscle tone.

Which of the following patients does NOT have an altered mental status

a patient with an acute allergic reaction and dizziness

In addition to obtaining a SAMPLE history and asking questions related to the chief complaint, what else should you inquire about when assessing a patient with a potentially infectious disease?

recent travel

A palpable pulse is created by:

pressure waves through the arteries caused by cardiac contraction.

Typical methods of assessing a patient's breathing include all of the following, EXCEPT

observing for nasal flaring during inhalation.

When you use the palpation method to obtain a blood pressure, the measurement you obtain is the

systolic blood pressure.

Cyanosis can be checked by observing the patient's..

Nail beds, mouth, extremities

Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes:

suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx.

An unresponsive patient with shallow, gasping respirations with only a few breaths per minute requires

immediate ventilation with a BVM attached to supplemental oxygen.

The adequate rate of ventilation for a non-breathign infant or child is _____ breaths per minute.


With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ______% inspired oxygen.


The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the

alveolar sacs.

The best method for providing artificial ventilation is the

two-person BVM with supplemental oxygen.

A 23-year-old male experienced severe head trauma after his motorcycle collided with an oncoming truck. He is unconscious, has rapid and shallow breathing, and has copious bloody secretions in his mouth. How should you manage his airway?

Alternate 15 seconds of oral suctioning with 2 minutes of assisted ventilation.

The structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity is called the _______ muscle.


You are ventilating a 40-year-old uninjured man who is apneic but has a pulse. When your partner reassesses his blood pressure, he notes that it has decreased significantly from previous readings. You elevate the patient's legs, but this action has no effect. You should:

reevaluate the rate and volume of your ventilations.

You and your partner are caring for a critically injured patient. Your partner is controlling severe bleeding from the patient's lower extremities as you attempt ventilations with a bag-mask device. After repositioning the mask several times, you are unable to effectively ventilate the patient. You should:

begin ventilations using the mouth-to-mask technique

The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).


An unresponsive patient with shallow, gasping respirations with only a few breaths per minute requires

immediate ventilation with a BVM attached to supplemental oxygen.

Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?


What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly

Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.

Inhalation occurs when the

diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during:


The electrical impulse of the heart normally begins at the:

sinoatrial node.

The ____________ is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.


A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The "130" represents:

ventricular contraction.

Bile is produced by the liver and concentrated and stored in the:


The most superior portion of the sternum is called the


Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:

their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.

The cervical spine is composed of ___________ vertebrae.


Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitoneal space


The average pulse rate of individuals between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:

70 beats/min.

The severity of bleeding should be based on all of the following findings, EXCEPT:

systolic blood pressure.

Neurogenic shock occurs when

failure of the nervous system causes widespread vasodilation.

Which of the following would MOST likely result in hemorrhagic shock?

liver laceration

When using a stick and square knot as a tourniquet to control severe bleeding from an amputated arm, the EMT should:

stop twisting the stick when the bleeding stops

A 39-year-old male accidentally cut his wrist while sharpening his hunting knife. He is conscious and alert with adequate breathing, but is bleeding significantly from the wound. You should:

control the bleeding with direct pressure.

Bleeding from the nose following head trauma:

is a sign of a skull fracture and should not be stopped.

External bleeding from a vein is relatively easy to control because:

veins are under a lower pressure.

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be associated with shock

cool, dry skin

Which of the following can be a late indicator of shock

decreased blood pressure

Irritation or damage to the pleural surfaces that causes sharp chest pain during inhalation is called:


A flail chest occurs when:

a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage.

Common signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT


A laceration

is a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma.

In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?

a pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back

When a light is shone into the pupil:

it should become smaller in size.

Which of the following is a severe burn in a 35-year-old patient

circumferential partial-thickness burn to the chest

Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT:

collapsed jugular veins.

Functions of dressings and bandages include all of the following, EXCEPT:

immobilization of the injury.

Which of the following is of LEAST importance when initially assessing the severity of a burn

known drug allergies

The PASG is absolutely contraindicated in patients who have

pulmonary edema.

Peritonitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the abdominal cavity, usually occurs when

hollow abdominal organs are damaged and spill their contents

Assessing a person's neurovascular status following a musculoskeletal injury includes all of the following, EXCEPT

evaluating proximal pulses.

Contraction or tensing of the abdominal muscles in an effort to ease pain is called:


You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:


A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:

proximal femur.

The five sections of the spinal column, in descending order, are the:

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.

An open fracture is MOST accurately defined as a fracture in which:

the overlying skin is no longer intact.

The MOST significant hazard associated with splinting is:

delaying transport of a critically injured patient.

Which of the following sets of vital signs depicts Cushing's triad?

blood pressure, 190/110 mm Hg; pulse, 55 beats/min; respirations, 30 breaths/min

Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?

pelvic fracture with hypotension

During your primary assessment of a 19-year-old unconscious male who experienced severe head trauma, you note that his respirations are rapid, irregular, and shallow. He has bloody secretions draining from his mouth and nose. You should:

suction his oropharynx for up to 15 seconds.

Which of the following statements regarding abdominal eviscerations is correct?

The protruding organs should be kept warm and moist.

A mother who is pregnant with her first baby is typically in the first stage of labor for approximately:

16 hours

The term "bloody show" is defined as:

the small amount of pink-tinged mucus that is discharged from the vagina after expulsion of the mucous plug.

The suture of the anterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age, and the suture of the posterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age.


If a newborn's heart rate is less than 60 beats/min following delivery, you should:

provide ventilations for 30 seconds.

Which of the following statements regarding gestational diabetes is correct?

In some cases, women with gestational diabetes require insulin injections.

When preparing a pregnant patient for delivery, you should position her:

on a firm surface with her hips elevated 2″ to 4″.

After a baby is born, it is important to:

ensure that it is thoroughly dried and warmed

Pale skin in a child indicates that the:

blood vessels near the skin are constricted.

The umbilical cord

carries oxygen to the baby via the umbilical vein.

Which of the following statements is NOT appropriate to document in the narrative section of a PCR

"General impression revealed that the patient was intoxicated."

Typical components of an oral patient report include all of the following, EXCEPT:

the set of baseline vital signs taken at the scene.

Which of the following describes the difference between and emergency move and an urgent move

urgent moves are performed with spinal precautions

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate statement for the EMT to make on a patient care report?

the patient was having an asthma attack

While using lights and siren, most state laws permit an ambulance to:

carefully exceed the posted speed limit.

After giving your radio report to the hospital, your patient loses consciousness. Which of the following should you do next?

reassess the patient

Medical control gives you an order that seems inappropriate for the patient's condition. After confirming that you heard the physician correctly, you should:

advise the physician that the order is unclear and ask for clarification.

Which of the following is NOT part of the radio report?

address at which the patient was located

Before giving activated charcoal, you should:

obtain approval from medical control.

Common causes of acute psychotic behavior include all of the following, EXCEPT:

Alzheimer's disease.

Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely if injured?


Which of the following statements regarding inhaled poisons is correct?

Lung damage may progress after the patient is removed from the environment.

Injury to a hollow abdominal organ would MOST likely result in:

leakage of contents into the abdominal cavity.

Esophageal varices MOST commonly occur in patients who:

drink a lot

A critical incident stress debriefing should be conducted no longer than ______ hours following the incident.


Carbon monoxide blocks the ability of the blood to oxygenate the body because it:

Binds with the hemoglobin inthe red blood cells

Which of the following components are needed to prove negligence?

duty to act, breach of duty, injury/damages, and causation

As an EMT, you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain based on:

Your local EMS protocols.

Which of the following scenarios MOST accurately depicts informed consent?

An EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatment.

If an EMT candidate has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor, he or she should:

contact the state EMS office and provide them with the required documentation.

If a mask cannot be placed on a coughing patient, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that you maintain a distance of at least ________ feet if possible.


EMT training in nearly every state meets or exceeds the guidelines recommended by the:

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

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