Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (56)
Recent cases of failed ethical judgment in business:
General motors - covered up faulty ignition switches
Barclay's Bank - manipulated benchmark interest rates to benefit trading positions
GlaxoSmithKline - unlawful and criminal promotion of certain prescription drugs
Walmart- Bribes to Mexican officials for building permits
refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors.
Information systems raise new ethical questions because
they create opportunities for intense social change, and thus threaten existing distributions of power, money, rights and obligations. New kinds of crime
The introduction of information technology has a ripple effect,
Social and political institutions cannot respond overnight to these ripples—it may take years to develop etiquette, expectations, laws.
arising new ethical, social, and political issues that must be dealt with on the individual, social and political levels.
What are the five moral dimensions in the ripple effect?
information rights and obligations, property rights and obligations, system quality, quality of life, and accountability and control.
information rights and obligations protects
what information rights do they posses and what can they protect
The moral dimension of ________ can be described as the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to intellectual property.
property rights and obligations
held liable for the messages they transmit.
Regulated common carriers (like phones)
Because of their special claims to knowledge, wisdom, and respect, professionals take on special rights and obligations. T/F
Ethics describes the principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals to make choices to guide their behavior. T/F
________ is the use of computers to assemble data from different sources to create electronic dossiers of detailed information about individuals.
The impact of computing power doubling every 18 months is
Organizations use information systems for their core production processes. As a result, our dependence on them and vulnerability to system errors have increased. Social rules and laws have not yet adjusted to this dependence.
The impact of data storage costs rapidly declining is
Public and private organizations easily maintain detailed databases on individuals -- employees, customers, and potential customers. Routine violation of individual privacy is cheap and easy. Enormous data storage systems are available for companies.
The impact of data analysis advances are
Companies can analyze vast quantities of data gathered on individuals to develop detailed profiles of individual behavior. Companies can assemble and combine little pieces of information about you-- from credit card purchases, phone calls, visits to websites, etc. Companies purchase this information for selling products. PROFILING
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create documents of detailed information on individuals is called:
Ex. ChoicePoint (police records on everyone)
______ has given the government and private sector even more powerful profiling capabilities. It can take information about people from many sources, and correlate relationships to find hidden connections that might help identify terrorists/criminals. It works in real time.
nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA)
The impact of network advances are
greatly reduce costs of moving and accessing large quantities of data and open the possibility of mining large pools of data remotely using small desktop machines. This permits an invasion of privacy with incredible precision.
The impact of mobile device growth is
individual cellphones may be tracked without user consent or knowledge.
Key concepts of ethical choices are:
responsibility, accountability and liability
you accept the potential costs, duties and obligations for the decisions you make.
a feature of systems and social institutions. Mechanisms are in place to determine who took responsible action and who is responsible.
political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems or organizations.
Due process is
a process in which laws are
known and understood
, and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly.
Real world ethical problems
Info technology takes jobs, companies monitor what their employees are doing on the internet. Facebook sells user info. Not all call it unethical
the claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or state; claim to be able to control information about yourself
Most American and European privacy law is based on a regime called _____. It is a set of principles governing the collection and use of information about individuals. Mutual between individual and record holder. Record may not be used to support other activities with the individual's consent.
Fair Information Practices (FIP)
Fair Information Practices (FIP) principles:
Notice/Awareness - Websites must disclose information practices before collecting data
Choice/consent - There must be a choice regime in place to allow customers to choose how their information will be used for secondary purposes.
Access/participation - Consumers should be able to review and contest the accuracy of the data collected about them.
Security - Must take responsible steps to assure info is secure.
Enforcement - self-regulation, legislation giving consumers legal remedies for violations, or federal statutes.
Needed in Europe. Defined as consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision.
Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or state; claim to be able to control information about yourself
A private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulations and legislation but does NOT involve government regulation
Small text files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits web sites. Cookies identify the visitor's web browser software and track visits to the web site.
Web beacons (web bugs)
Used by marketers, tiny software programs that keep a record of users' online clickstream and report this data back to whomever owns the tracking file (invisibly embedded in emails and websites).
of informed consent permits the collection of personal information until the customer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
informed consent in which a business is prohibited from collecting any personal information unless the consumer specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
The online industry has preferred ____ to privacy legislation for protecting customers
Surreptitiously installed on user's computer
May transmit user's keystrokes or display unwanted ads
Online Privacy Alliance helps
encourage self-regulation and set guidelines. Promotes use of online seals (TRUSTe), certifying websites adhering to privacy principles.
Network Advertising Initiative (NAI)
has developed privacy policies to help customers opt out of advertising network programs and provide consumers redress from abuses.
The principle sources of poor system performance are
1) software bugs and errors
2) hardware of facility failures caused by natural or other causes
3) poor input data quality
Power has become more ____ into the hands of a few private oligopolies and large government agencies.
"Do not track" options
Overall, few technical solutions
intangible property of any kind created by individuals or corporations
Three main ways that intellectual property is protected:
Trade secret: intellectual work or product belonging to business, not in the public domain
Copyright: statutory grant protecting intellectual property from being copied for the life of the author, plus 70 years
Patents: grants creator of invention an exclusive monopoly on ideas behind invention for 20 years
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
Makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials
Computer-related liability problems
If software fails, who is responsible?
If seen as part of machine that injures or harms, software producer and operator may be liable.
If seen as similar to book, difficult to hold author/publisher responsible.
What should liability be if software seen as service? Would this be similar to telephone systems not being liable for transmitted messages?
What is an acceptable, technologically feasible level of system quality?
Flawless software is economically unfeasible.
Three principal sources of poor system performance:
Software bugs, errors
Hardware or facility failures
Poor input data quality (most common source of business system failure)
Negative social consequences of systems
Balancing power: computing power decentralizing but key decision making remains centralized
Rapidity of change: maybe not have enough time to respond to global competition
Maintaining boundaries: use lengthens work-day, infringes on family time
Dependence and vulnerability: organizations more dependent on it
commission of illegal acts through use of computer or against a computer system—computer may be object or instrument of crime
Computer abuse: unethical acts, not illegal
Spam: high costs for businesses in dealing with spam
Reengineering work resulting in lost jobs
Equity and access—the digital divide:
Certain ethnic and income groups in the United States less likely to have computers or Internet access
- Repetitive stress injury (RSI)
Largest source is computer keyboards
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
- Computer vision syndrome (CVS)
Eyestrain and headaches related to screen use
Aggravation, impatience, fatigue
Which legal mechanism grants the owner exclusive ownership of the ideas behind an invention for 20 years?
CVS refers to
eyestrain related to computer display screen use.
Shopping bots use ________ software for searching the Internet
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MIS chapter 4
MIS Chapter 4 Quiz
MIS CHAPTER 4
MIS Chapter 4
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MIS Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Inform…
Chapter 4 Ethical and Social Issues
MIS Test 3 CH 4
Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Informatio…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR