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What are the major limiting factors that determine the distribution of organisms in aquatic ecosystems?

light and nutrients

The greatest diversity of plants and animals is found in

tropical rain forests

A(n) ________ is an area that is very dry because the air in that region has passed over a mountain and lost most of its moisture.

rain shadow

In the fall, the trees in a temperate deciduous forest lose their leaves primarily as an adaptation to:

lack of available water

The destruction of the ozone layer is caused by a chemical reaction between UV light and:


The prevailing winds in the Glacier National Park area of Montana are from the west. Which side of this mountainous region receives the most rain and snow?


What is the dominant vegetation of the savanna?


If global warming raises sea levels rapidly due to the melting of glaciers but does not change water temperatures, what will likely be the direct effect on coral reefs throughout the world?

Coral reefs in deep waters will die because insufficient light reaches them for photosynthesis

In which biome would you expect to find large numbers of black bears, snowshoe hares, moose, lynx, wolves, and deer?


The primary producers in hydrothermal vent communities are:

sulfur bacteria

The temperatures at the equator remain warm year-round because

xxx Earth's natural curvature places the equator nearer the sun

The major driving force behind winds, ocean currents, and the global water cycle is

heating by the sun

If global warming makes the southeastern United States warmer but does not change the amount of rainfall, we might expect to see a shift from the present temperate deciduous forest biome to:

tropical deciduous forest.

Incoming sunlight is modified by Earth's atmosphere; for example, the ozone layer absorbs much of the sun's

high-energy UV radiation

Permafrost is associated with which of these biomes?


For centuries before Europeans arrived on the North American continent, Native Americans prevented the encroachment of forests farther west and maintained the tallgrass prairies throughout the area that now includes Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois by

setting fires periodically to kill the trees.

The taiga is characterized by

long cold winters, short growing seasons, and conifers.

Coral reefs have formed as the result of:

skeletons from some types of Cnidarians and algae.

Which area contains aquatic organisms that can tolerate exposure to air?

intertidal zone

What is the ecological significance of shallow bays and coastal wetlands such as estuaries and salt marshes?

They are the breeding grounds for a wide variety of sea-dwelling animals.

The Atlantic cod population off the coast of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada decreased dramatically during the 1900s due to overfishing. What conservation measure, presently being applied, is most likely to help this fish population recover?

establishing marine reserves in the area that prohibit fishing until stocks recover

A(n) ________ is an area that is very dry because the air in that region has passed over a mountain and lost most of its moisture

rain shadow

The profundal zone is home to organisms that are:

decomposers and detritus feeders.

The ozone hole over Antarctica and the general lowering of ozone levels elsewhere in the stratosphere have been attributed to the ozone-destroying properties of


Earth's ozone layer is extremely important because it

blocks incoming UV radiation, which is damaging to animals and reduces photosynthesis in plants and algae

________ are large areas that have similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities.


Which biome contains plants that have small leaves coated with protective waxes or reflective hairs that can withstand hot, dry summers and are adapted to fire?


The major concentrations of life in the oceans are found in

xxx the aphotic zone due to high light levels

A(n) ________ is a cold region with evergreen coniferous trees as the dominant vegetation


Oligotrophic lakes are characterized by:

clear water with deep penetration of light

In a tropical rain forest, the majority of animals are found:

in the towering treetops

The most heat-tolerant organisms presently known come from:

xxx deserts

Why is the human-caused damage to coral reefs of particular concern?

Reefs provide food and shelter for the world's most diverse collection of marine invertebrates and fish.

Why do areas of upwelling tend to have large and diverse populations of organisms?

Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water up from the ocean depths

Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water up from the ocean depths

The leaves of deciduous trees do not block the light in the spring.

The profundal zone is home to organisms that are:

decomposers and detritus feeders.

Which of the following North American biomes has been almost completely destroyed by agricultural use?


The ________ is the zone near the shore of a lake where a diverse group of organisms lives and where light and nutrients are abundant.


The thick, green stems and spike-like leaves of cacti and euphorbias are adaptations to

conserve water in dry environments

Organisms that spend their lives in open water swimming or floating are:


What is the role of the ozone layer?

It reduces the amount of UV light that reaches Earth's surface.

The primary producers in hydrothermal vent communities are

sulfur bacteria.

In hydrothermal vent communities, primary productivity is based on:

xxx bacterial decomposition

Which biome is rapidly expanding into the African Sahel?


What are the fundamental resources required to support life?

water, nutrients, energy, appropriate temperatures

Pronounced wet and dry seasons and warm temperatures are characteristic of:

tropical deciduous forests

Why do higher-latitude ecosystems experience more pronounced seasons than ecosystems at equatorial latitudes?

Earth is tilted on its axis as it orbits the sun annually

In the unique seafloor vent community, the primary producers are

sulfur bacteria

Thick, water-storing leaves and stems and wax-coated leaves are adaptations to


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