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Music Exam 2
Terms in this set (52)
degrees of freedom
"the first standardized, non-personal approach to teaching improvisation" arrived with teaching bebop in the late 20th century (50).
Bailey complains that "jazz...seems to have changed from being an aggressive, independent, vital, searching music" (50).
Berliner writes, "Ironically, artistic creativity sometimes seeds new inventions as a result of the monotony of repeated performance"
I, IV, V, I chord structure12 BAR Q
Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The name originally referred to a specific place: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan, and a plaque (see below) on the sidewalk on 28th Street between Broadway and Sixth commemorates it.
The start of Tin Pan Alley is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut.
conventional jazz...based on tunes in time
Steve Lacy JAZZ
the patterns are well known and everybody is playing them
new inventions...result [from] the monotony of repeated performance
"musicians take minor liberties" with the fixed music
unique patterns of imagination" for each person
substituting "shapes...whose relationship to the original model remains clear"
"transforming the melody into patterns bearing little or no resemblance to the original"
or Konitz, how jazz musicians learn to improvise in a...
...single song and as a whole
New Orleans jazz
he 12-bar blues collective improvisation
from combos to big bands classic arrangements
individual solos-- the background artists wanted a go at it
marches and marching bands, classical training, typical chord progressions
euro american influences
New orleans first and last sections:
collective improvisation. example Louis armstrong potato head blues
Paul Whiteman's 1924 concert
claimed to be the first to score jazz. "The Man who made a lady out of jazz."
30s through 40s
many more white performers and listeners
Fletcher Henderson (Black) worked with Benny Goodman and did not have repercussions because he was rarely seen
one of the most respected arrangers of jazz music
first integrated bands
The swing orchestra is divded into three sections
reeds, horns, and rhythm
short repeated phrases
dance oriented jazz
bebop placed emphasis on virtuosity
more irregular rhythms
music designed for listening, not for dancing
, not orchestra
lots of quick notes - dexterity and breath control
emphasis on solos
beyond the conventions of keeping time and supporting. instrumental virtuosity.
according to Monson, why would jazz musicians associate non-western musics with greater musical and personal freedom at this time?
political significance of claiming Afro-diasporic affiliation
"importance of India and ...Gandhi as symbols of anticolonialism and non-violent resistance" (161)
"a broad range of social, spiritual, transnational, and political meanings became attached to the improvisational tendencies implied by the term modal jazz" (160)
"Transmissions of an Interculture: Pan-African Jazz and Intercultural Improvisation"
Stanyek concludes by suggesting
"intercultural encounters can offer...a model for engaging with those things that separate us"
Milman Parry's def for formula
a group of words which is regularly employed under the same metrical
conditions to express a given essential idea in Lord pg 30; italics mine)
If the singer is in the Yugoslav tradition, he obtains a sense of ten syllables followed by a syntactic pause, although he never counts out ten syllables, and if asked, might not be able to tell how many syllables there are between pauses.
...Basic patterns of meter, word boundary, melody have become his possession
developing an ear:
One word begins to suggest another by its very sound; one phrase suggests another not only by reason of idea or by a special ordering of ideas,
but also by acoustic value
practicing and performing:
The most stable formulas will be those for the most common ideas of the poetry. ...the commonest ones which he first uses set a basic pattern, and once he has the basic pattern firmly in his grasp, he needs only to
substitute another word for the key one
Although it may seem that the more important part of the singer's training is the learning of formulas from other singers, I believe that the really significant element in the process is rather the setting up of various patterns that
make adjustment of phrase and creation of phrases by analogy possible
today, freestylers and "the technique of composition by formula manipulation
lorde what functions as a formula in hip hop freestyling?
"The most stable formulas will be those for the most common ideas in poetry lorde
hip hop origins
940s-50s: American R&B and jazz goes to Jamaica 1960s-70s: Jamaican reggae and dub
late 1960s-early 70s: Jamaican and other Caribbean migrants to NYC
Cultural contact with black Americans and Latino/a
Young people of all these backgrounds live in the South Bronx
Disco, soul, funk, reggae, dub, bachata, salsa all part of the soundscape
arts made by and for politically motivated African-Americans "nation" defined by shared culture
Gil scott heron
poet - spoken word
lorde and formulas
it is about tunes and time
breaking (b-boying or b-girling)
some include "understanding" as the fifth element (Zulu Nation)
what an emcee does
linguist Geneva Smitherman
any kind of strong, aggressive, highly fluent, powerful talk
what functions as a formula in hip hop freestyling
ommon rhymes and rhythmic patterns
famous references from hip hop songs and American culture couplets or call and response traditionally used to hype the crowd "this common stock of formulas...creates the impression that all singers know the same formulas" (Lord pg 49)
hat other conventions should the freestyler follow?
mention things/people in the immediate environment conform the flow to the music
divide the performance into sixteen-bar verses
show you know your (hip hop) history "this common stock of formulas...creates the impression that all singers know the same formulas" (Lord pg 49)
While many scholars emphatically claim that Hip Hop is poetry—and it is—Hip Hop Headz are sayin, 'Don't just limit us by sayin what we do is poetry.'"
Internal rhym alim discusses three types
between the middle and end of a line, or between the middle and middle of one or two lines
compound internal rhyme
"where an internal rhyme is imbedded [sic] within another internal rhyme" (145)
primary internal: outer rhyme (beginning and/or end) secondary internal: inner rhymes
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