Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (36)
The ability of one or more muscles to perform routine tasks without undue fatigue.
The speed with which a muscle can move a given object one time. The force of a muscle depends on its size, length, speed, and the joint angle. A muscle develops greater force when it is elongated, and less force when it is shortened.
The ability to sustain an effort for an extended time. This is often measured by determining the maximum number of repetitions of a given resistance.
The ability of one or more muscles to exert force by contracting against resistance. This is often measured by determining the most weight lifted during one effort.
The ability of a muscle to move an object quickly and repeatedly.
Muscle tissue that is connected to bones and moves them in order to produce body movement.
A specialized muscle tissue found only in the heart. It has its own electrical conduction system and keeps the heart beating in response to the body's need for oxygen. Cardiac muscle is much less resistant to fatigue than other muscle types.
Muscle tissue in the walls of body organs such as the stomach and intestines. It controls involuntary movement and makes the organs expand and contract.
The fibrous connective tissue by which a muscle attaches to a bone.
A sheet or band of tough, fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilage at a joint or supporting an organ.
muscle fiber (muscle cell)
Each skeletal muscle consists of hundreds or thousands of tiny fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective-tissue covering. Muscle fibers coordinate muscle contractions for movement.
Microscopic protein filaments that make up muscle cells.
nucleus (plural, nuclei)
A structure in a cell that contains most of the cell's genetic material, which controls gene expression. Muscle cells have multiple nuclei, enhancing their ability to synthesize proteins and to grow.
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SER)
In muscle cells, a network of vesicles and tubules that store calcium, which is released as one step in the muscle-contraction process.
sliding filament theory (SFT)
An explanation of how muscles shorten, or produce force. According to the SFT, thick and thin filaments within muscle cells slide past one another to shorten the muscle. This process requires the presence of ATP.
slow-twitch muscle fibers (type I)
Muscle fibers that have a slow rate of force generation. Slow-twitch fibers are highly dependent on oxygen and can sustain a given effort indefinitely.
fast-twitch muscle fibers (types IIa and IIx)
Muscle fibers that have a fast rate of force production. Fast-twitch fibers can produce force with little, if any, oxygen, but cannot sustain an effort for very long.
An increase in the size of muscle fibers, typically accomplished through resistance training.
Derived from cholesterol, this anabolic steroid hormone is the principal male sex hormone and is critical for increasing muscle mass. The average male produces about fifty times more testosterone than a female, thereby allowing men to produce greater muscle mass than women.
An age-related loss of muscle fiber, muscle strength, and muscle mass.
A decrease in the size of muscle fibers, typically as a result of chronic disuse.
A progressive decrease in bone mineral density that leads to an increased risk of fracture. It is more common in women than in men, especially after menopause.
1-repetition maximum (1-RM)
The maximum amount of weight lifted one time.
static (isometric) training
Resistance exercise against a stationary force. During static muscle training, force is applied to an immovable object, so the agonist muscle does not change in length. Strength gains are limited to the range of motion used, so this training is used in rehabilitation settings.
range of motion (ROM)
The full range through which a joint can move.
Resistance exercise in which the resistance varies throughout the ROM, thereby ensuring a constant rate of speed. This training requires specialized equipment and is typically done in a rehabilitation setting.
dynamic (isotonic) training
Exercise in which muscle force is exerted throughout the contraction, although the resistance and speed vary as the length of the muscle changes because a muscle is weakest when it is longest and shortest. This is the most common form of muscle training and can be done with body weight, machines, free weights, and other devices.
Skeletal muscle movement leading to shortening of the agonist muscle.
Skeletal muscle movement leading to lengthening of the agonist muscle.
The muscle primarily responsible for movement of a bone.
The muscle opposite the agonist, which must relax and lengthen during contraction of the agonist.
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Muscle soreness experienced 12-36 hours after increased exertion. The exact cause of DOMS is unknown, but it may be related to microtears in muscle cells. The discomfort usually subsides within 24 hours.
Tiny tears in muscle fibers that are believed to be at least partly responsible for DOMS.
Training that focuses on the muscles of the abdominal region and lower back. By stabilizing the spine, it can improve posture and decrease risk of falls.
Training that mimics real-life movement patterns and integrates multiple muscle groups.
Synthetic steroids designed to increase muscle mass. Anabolic steroids, although quite effective in increasing muscle size and strength, have many undesirable side effects, including severe mood swings, decreased libido, decreased testicle size, decreased sperm
production, and increased male sexual traits in women.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Canfitpro Chapter 6
biomechanics ch 6.
Ch. 6 Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Muscle
The Muscular System Outline
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Microbiology Cumulative Information Ch. 9,10,14,15…
Microbiology - Ch 9, 10,14, 15, and 16!