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Milady Cosmetology Chapter 20
Terms in this set (103)
Chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form a polypeptide chain.
Another term for peptide bonds.
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
_____________ are made of long, coiled polypeptide chains (chains of amino acids) linked together end to end like beads.
Strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.
There are far fewer disulfide bonds than hydrogen or salt bonds, they are the _______ of the three side bonds.
Most common type of perm rods;smaller diameter in center that increases to a larger diameter on ends.
Equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area; produces a uniform curl along entire width of the strand.
Absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
Double flat wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
Single flat wrap
Similar to double flat wrap but uses only one ends paper, placed over top the strand of hair; provides the most control over hair ends.
Uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
Subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
Position of the rod in relation to its base section; determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped. Can be on base, half off base, of off base.
Hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
Half off-base placement
Hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
Wrapping hair at a 45 degree below the center of the base section, so that the rod is positioned completely off its base.
Spiral perm wrap
Hair wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to look almost like the stripes on a candy cane.
Hair is wrapped on one rod from scalp to midway down the hair shaft and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair stand in the same direction.
Another term for double-rod wrap
Soften and swell
Chemical hair texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair in order to ___________________________.
Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called ____________.
The active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanent waves is __________.
_________________ with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution.
In the restructuring process, coarse, resistant hair with a strong compact cuticle requires a chemical solution that is _______________.
The _____________ of the perm solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer.
The main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions; has a low pH.
Modern acid waves are actually ________________, which are permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing.
Permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer.
All exothermic waves have three components: ___________________.
Activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer. Will not process properly at room temperature.
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so they're is very little odor associated with their use.
The strength of any permanent wave is based on the concentration of its __________________.
Permanent wave solution
The amount of processing is determined by the strength of the ________________.
Processing the hair more
_________________ does not necessarily translate into more curl.
A properly processed permanent wave should break and rebuild approximately _____ of the hair's disulfide bonds.
Weak curl or may even be completely straight
Overprocessed hair usually a _________________________.
Curlier at the scalp and straighter at the ends
Since the hair at the scalp is usually stronger than the hair at the ends, over processed hair is usually _________________________.
Straighter at the scalp and curlier at the ends
Underprocessed hair is usually _________________________.
Stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form.
Can also lighten hair color, especially at an alkaline pH.
___________ left in hair reduces the effectiveness of the neutralizer.
Acidic liquid protein conditioner
Can be applied to the hair and dried under a warm hair dryer (hair is uncovered) for five minutes or more prior to neutralization.
Permanent waving solution breaks disulfide bonds by adding ________.
Removing the hydrogen
Thio neutralization rebuilds the disulfide bonds by _______________ that was added by the permanent waving solution.
Preliminary test curls
It is advisable to take ________________ of the hair is damaged or if there is any uncertainty about the results.
Basic permanent wrap
A wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases.
Straight set wrap
Another name for basic permanent wrap.
Curvature permanent wrap
Partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
Bricklay permanent wrap
Base sections are offset from each other row by row, too prevent noticeable splits, and to blend the flow of the hair.
The ________________ uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.
When the client does not want the entire head to be curled.
Many ____ clients are looking for the added texture, fullness, style, and low maintenance only a perm can provide.
Perms can help thin hair look fuller, make straight or coarse hair more manageable, and help control stubborn ________.
Leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. They are found in some home hair coloring products and ate not compatible with permanent waving.
Hair will lighten slightly
What will occur in a mixture of 20 volume peroxide and 20 drops of 28 percent ammonia if metallic salts are not present?
Hair will lighten rapidly, may get hot and give an unpleasant odor.
What will occur in a mixture of 20 volume peroxide and 20 drops of 28 percent ammonia if metallic salts are present?
Chemical hair relaxing
A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
Use the same ATG that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10).
The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13 and the active ingredient of the hydroxide ion.
Metal hydroxide relaxers
Relaxers that contain only one component and are used without mixing are ____________.
An oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
Strength and elasticity
The cortex layer of the hair structure is responsible for the hair's ________________.
The term pH is an abbreviation used for _________________.
___________________ can be broken by water or heat and are re-formed when the hair is dried.
_________________ are broken by changes in pH.
Size of the rod and the wrapping method
What determines the size of the curl in permanent waving?
____________ placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair.
Alkaline waves are also known as ____________.
__________________ use an ingredient other than ATG, such as cysteamine or mecaptamine.
The most common neutralizer is ________________.
Japanese thermal straightening combines use of a __________ with flat ironing.
Hair that has been treated with a ________________ is unfit for a permanent waving and will not hold a curl.
Keratin straightening, keratin
_______________ treatments work by fixing ___________ in place in a semi-permanent manner.
Chemical texture services
The process of chemically altering the natural wave pattern of hair is ____________.
0 to 14
The range of numbers used in the pH scale
All perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into _____________.
Stress and tension on hair.
Caution should be4 used with on-base rod placement to avoid additional ______________.
The angle at which a permanent wave rod is positioned on the head is referred to as _____________.
Croquignole and spiral
The two methods of wrapping the hair around a perm rod are ________________.
ends to scalp
In the corquignole method of wrapping, the hair is wound from _______________.
In permanent waving, the reduction reaction is due to the addition of _____________.
The most common reducing agents used are ____________.
9.0 and 9.6
Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between _________.
7.8 and 8.2
Most acid waves used in salons have a pH value between ________.
Hair that has too many disulfide bonds broken and will not hold a firm curl is considered:
The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers is the ________.
Hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it to a(n) _________.
Sodium hydroxide relaxers are commonly called __________.
potassium hydroxide relaxers
Relaxers are often marketed and sold as no mix-lye relaxers are _____________.
guanidine hydroxide relaxers
Relaxers that contain two components and must be mixed immediately prior to use are ___________.
Hydroxide relaxers that do not require the application of a protective base are ___________.
The difference in the strength of most chemical hair relaxers is determined by the concentration of ___________.
During a relaxer strand test, hair that is pressed to the scalp and continues to curl is ___________________.
back of the head
The application for chemical relaxers should be started in the most resistant area, usually the _______________.
Conditioner with an acidic pH that restores the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer is ______________.
soft curl permanent
A combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods is a ____________________.
Chemical services should not be performed if the scalp analysis shows any signs of ___________________.
Hair that is treated with hydroxide relaxers must not be treated with _____________________.
Also known as the circle rod
Tough exterior layer of the hair
Compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen nitrogen, and sulfur
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