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321 terms

Ch 1-5 Project Set

STUDY
PLAY
integument
covering;
made of 2 parts:
cutaneous membrane, or skin,
& accessory structures
6 integument functions
1. cover & protect
2. maintain body temperature
3. produce Vitamin D upon UV-ray exposure
4. detects sensory information
5. nutrient storage (fat, glucose, water, salt)
6. excretes waste
3 skin layers
2 cutaneous layers:
epidermis [epithelial tissue] & dermis [connective]
1 underlying tissue:
subcutaneous tissue [connective];
aka hypodermis
epidermis
outer-most layer of skin;
epithelial tissue; has 5/4 layers or keratinocytes, macrophages, and melanocytes;
stratum corneum
outermost layer of epidermis; made of flattened, dead, keratinocytes; these cells slough off, mostly into bath or dust
keratinocyte
skin cell that produces keratin
(vast majority of skin cells)
keratin
hard, waterproof protein found in epidermis, hair, and nails;
stratum lucidum
epidermal layer deep to the s. corneum;
5th layer found only in thick skin on palmar & plantar regions
stratum granulosum
epidermal layer deep to the s. corneum/s. lucidum;
keratinization (cell hardening) occurs here
stratum spinosum
epidermal layer deep to the s. granulosum;
contains live keratinocytes and macrophages to defend from pathogens
stratum germinativum
deepest epidermal layer; aka stratum basale;
keratinocytes undergo contstant mitosis here; cells then ascend through the epidermal layers until sloughed; melanocytes found here;
melanin
pigment that determines skin color; protects skin from UltraViolet rays (from sun or lightbulbs); produced in melanocytes in s. germinativum;
melanocyte
melanin-producing cell found in s. germinativum;
hemoglobin
red-pigmented protein found in red blood cells; red when bound to O2; gives pink undertone in light-skinned people
urticaria
rash of itchy wheals (raised hives); an acute allergic reaction
pruritus
itchiness
erythema
redness of skin; no raised wheals;
often from injury, infection, and inflammation, or blushing
carotene
yellowish pigment found in epidermis
dermis
fibrous connective tissue deeper than epidermis; contains accessory structures of skin;
provides nutrients to epidermis
hair
column of dead, compacted keratinocytes produced in hair follicle; protects scalp and orifices; provides sensory information
hair follicle
tubelike pocket of epidermal cells that extends into dermis, where hair is produced
hair shaft
visible portion of hair
hair root
portion of hair inside the follicle below the epidermis
sebaceous gland
sebum (oil) gland of skin; often empties into hair follicle
ceruminous gland
found in external auditory canal; prodcues cerumen
cerumen
ear wax;
protects eardrum (eg, trauma, infection, and dehydration
sudoriferous gland
sweat gland; produces sweat to cool body via evaporation
subcutaneous layer
connective adipose tissue layer deep to dermis; connects dermis to underlying muscle tissue; insulates and cushions; aka hypodermis;
no major organs: IDEAL for INJECTIONS (Sub-Q injections)
skin sensory receptor
provide Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord) information from environment about touch & pressure, temperature, and pain
nail
sheet of dead, compacted keratinocytes produced in; nail root; protects fingertips
cuticle
superficial band of epidermis covering nail bed, made of keratinocytes
vitamin D
produced in skin upon UltraViolet radiation (light);
aka sunshine vitamin
vasodilation
blood vessels increase in size & bloodflow (eg, skin when body is hot); contributes to sweat & heat loss
vasoconstriction
blood vessels decrease in size & bloodflow (eg, skin when body is cold)
thin skin
skin type covering most of the body;
only has 4 layers, no s. lucidum
thick skin
skin type covering only on palmar & plantar regions;
has 5 layers, including s. lucidum
dermal papillae
folds, or ridges, of dermis into overlying epidermis;
contributes to fingerprints;
blood vessels and nerves inside;
4 tissue types
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nervous
epithelial tissue
avascular cellular tissue that covers surface of body and lines internal organs;
cells are polar, attached to something, and regnerate when damaged
epithelial tissue functions
protects body, controls permeablity, senses environement, and secretes substances
germinative cell
stem cell, one which divides regularly
cell junction
form tight bonds with other cells or extracellular material;
3 types (strongest to weakest):
1. desmosomes
2. gap junctions
3. tight junctions
desmosome
large complex of molecules, which are strongest intercellular junction; anchors cell
epithelial classes
layers [simple or stratified] & shape [squamous, cuboidal, columnar, (transitional)]
simple
epithelium only 1-cell thick
stratified
epithelium more than 1-cell thick
squamous
flat, thin epithelial cell; looks "squashed" or like a fried egg
cuboidal
epithelial cells that look like cubes when cut
columnar
tall, slender epithelial cells
transitional
stratified epithelium with cells that stretch; ex, urinary bladder
exocrine gland
epithelial tissue that produces secretions onto epithelial surfaces
endocrine gland
epithelial tissue that releases hormones into blood
merocrine secretion
secretions released by vesicle exocytosis;
eg sweat
apocrine secretion
secretions released by shedding cytoplasm, or "pinching off top" of cell;
eg, milk
holocrine secretion
secretions released by cell bursting;
eg sebum
serous gland
secretes watery serous solution, used for lubrication (reduce friction)
mucous gland
produces thick, slippery mucous; also used for lubrication and as "fly paper" to catch debris
mixed gland
secretes both serous fluid & mucus
connective tissue
tissue with more matrix than cells; tissue characteristics depends on matrix; tissue with "more stuff than cells"
matrix
extracellular parts of connective tissues;
determines function of tissue;
"stuff outside connective cells";
eg, in bone: calcium phosphate, in blood: water, in adipose tissue: fat
connective tissue functions
support and protect (bone/cartilage)
transport materials (blood)
energy storage (adipose)
defense (lymph)
connective tissue types
connective tissue proper, ie loose & dense;
fluid connective tissues, ie blood & lymph
supportive connective tissues, bone & cartilage
connective tissue proper
loose & dense tissues comprise this class of connective tissue;
adipose, or fat, tissue is loose;
tendons & ligaments are dense
fluid connective tissue
blood & lymph comprise this class of connective tissue
supportive connective tissue
bone & cartilage comprise this class of connective tissue
connective tissue cell types
1. fibroblasts: form matrix
2. macrophages: devour pathogens
2. mast cells: release histamine (inflammation) and heparin (blood thinner)
collagen
strong, yet flexible protein; most-produced protein in body; found extensively in connective tissues (bone, skin, etc)
elastin
stretchy, but elastic, protein; found extensively in connective tissue (skin)
ground substance
clear, colorless, viscous (thick) substance;
fills spaces between cells;
slows pathogen movement
reticular fiber
thin collagen-like fiber; form supportive networks in a variety of tissues
adipose
fatty tissue; type of loose connective tissue that stores energy, insulates and cushions the body
tendon
dense connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones
ligament
dense connective tissue that attaches bones to bones
dermis
dense connective tissue deep to the epidermis (epithelial layer)
cartilage
strong connective tissue, more flexible than bone; found on bone ends, trachea, intervertebral discs, etc.
fibrocartilage
stongest cartilage type; reduce friction upon bone to bone contact; functions as protective padding; found between vertebrae (intervertebral discs) and pad the knee (meniscus)
elastic cartilage
most-flexible cartilage type; found in external ear (pinna) and top of larynx (epiglottis)
hyaline cartilage
"in-between strength" cartilage; more flexible than fibrocartilage, but stronger than elastic cartilage; found at the tips of bones
muscle tissue
tissue that contracts; produces force, movement, and heat; 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
skeletal muscle
attached to skeleton;
moves body and creates most body heat;
voluntary;
striated (striped) in appearance
cardiac muscle
found in heart; moves blood;
involuntary; striated (striped) in appearance
smooth muscle
found in walls of tubular organs; involuntary; smooth (not striped) in appearance
nervous tissue
tissue made of neurons and neuroglia; receives sensory impulses (electrical signals) from the environment, analyzes the data (in brain/spinal cord), and directs motor output
neuron
specialized cell for electrical communication (aka, nerve impulses); basic building block of the nervous system; aka nerve cell
neuroglia
supporting cells of the nervous system; perform wide array of functions in brain/spinal cord; "nerve glue"
dendrite
long extensions of the cell membrane;
receive electrical impules from other neurons, sending info to the cell body
cell body
part of cell containing nucleus;
in neurons, this part summates ("adds up") electrical impulses arriving from dendrites
axon
long extension of neuron cell membrane that conveys electrical impulse away from cell body to another cell; "A"xons send impulses "A"way
synapse
where an axon communicates with a dendrite (or other cell) using electrical and chemical signals
cutaneous membrane
covers and protects body; aka skin
mucous membrane
lines cavities exposed to outside world; secretes protective, lubricating mucous; found in nose, lungs, intestines, etc
serous membrane
thin membrane covering internal body cavities; secretes serous fluid that keeps the membrane lubricated
pleura
serous membrane covering lungs and pleural cavity
pericardium
serous membrane lining the heart and the pericardial cavity abdominal organs and the abdominopelvic cavity; covers a "ton" of organs
peritoneum
serous membrane lining the abdominopelvic cavity and organs
synovial membrane
found in joint cavities; secretes "eggy" fluid that lubricates the joint
inflammation
tissure response to injury;
signs & symptoms: swelling, redness, heat, pain;
aka inflammatory response
infection
presnece of harmful pathogen
cancer rate
1 in 4 (25%) of people in US develop cancer;
#2 cause of death,
cigarette smoking causes ~450,000 deaths including 50,000 from secondhand smoke
cell
basic unit of life (of structure and function);
smallest living thing
cell theory
cells all:
1. make up all living things
2. are basic unit of life
3. come from another cell that divided
4. maintain homeostasis
cytology
science that investigates formation, structure, and function of cells
cell membrane
thin, flexible, phospholipid bilayer;
isolates inside of cell;
regulates what enters and exits cell;
senses environment;
supports sturcutres in and on cell
cytoplasm
watery solution (cytosol) plus organelles;
minerals, gases, and organic molecules are suspended and react/interact here;
found between cell membrane and nucleus
cytosol
watery-fluid portion of cytoplasm;
contains nutrients, ions (high K+ low Na+), and wastes
selectively-permeable
property of cell membranes: some substances pass through, others cannot
nucleus
region within the nuclear envelope containing chromosomes (DNA); resposible for mitosis / meiosis; "control center" of the cell
number of chromosomes
46, in humans
nucleolus
structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made
organelle
tiny cell structure, which perform specific cell function(s)
mitochondria
performs cellular respiration, which produces ATP (pure energy); "powerhouse" of the cell
Golgi apparatus
flatened sacs of membrane that modify, store, and route cell products; aka Golgi body
ribosome
small particle in cell that assembles proteins; made of RNA and protein
lysosome
oval membrane sacs, containing digestive enzymes
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membrane tubules; modifies proteins, synthesizes lipids, and transports them throughout cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum WITHOUT ribosomes attached
rough endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum WITH ribosomes attached
cilia
short, hair-like projections of cell membrane; move materials outside a cell: "cilia sweep snot"
flagella
long, tail-like projection of cell; provide motility (ie, moves cell); only in sperm (in humans)
mitosis
cell division into two nearly identical daughter cells; both cells contain 46 chromosomes
meiosis
sex-cell division; daughter cells contain only 23 chromosomes
diffusion
movement of molecules from highly concentrated area to less concentrated area; ex, Kool-Aid spreads out in water, CO2 and O2 diffuse out of and into blood
concentration gradient
difference between area of high concetration of a given molecule versus another area of lower concentration
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; ex, water spreads into Kool-Aid
osmotic pressure
force of a concentration gradient of water;
force caused by movement of water from area of high concetration to low concetration
hydrostatic pressure
force needed to block osmosis;
eg, in body, heart provides this pressure
isotonic solution
solution whose solute concentration is equal to that inside a cell; thus, no osmosis
hypotonic solution
solution with less solutes than cell;
cell swells, due to osmosis
hypertonic solution
solution with more solutes than cell;
cell shrivels, due to osmosis
filtration
using pressure to force a solution through a filter; ex, blood pressure filters blood plasma in the kidneys
filter
allows some things to pass through, while prevent other things passage; ex, coffee filter, water filter
active transport
molecule movement requiring energy (ATP); usually moving molecules across cell membrane from low concentration to high concentration-against diffusion;
ex, Na+-K+ exchange pump, and amino acid absorption in small intestine
passive transport
type of molecular transport requiring no energy (ATP);
eg absorbing water
facilitated diffusion
passive movement of molecules across cell membranes through protein channels/carriers; requires no energy, diffusion provides the force; ex, glucose-transporters that allow glucose from the blood to enter cells
endocytosis
process by which cell takes in material by infolding the cell membrane: ex, phagocytosis and pinocytosis
phagocytosis
process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells; "cell eating"; white-blood cells, called phagocytes, engulf pathogens
pinocytosis
process by which certain cells engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid; "cell drinking"
exocytosis
materials are released from the cell
osmolarity
total number of particles in a solution;
(eg, sugar, Na+, Cl-, amino acids)
cotransport
moves 2+ substances in same direction at same time; performed by protein
countertransport
moves 2+ substances in opposite directions at same time; performed by protein
matter
anything that has mass (weight) and takes up space; made of atoms;
3 familiar forms: solid, liquid, gas;
energy
ability to put matter into motion (aka produce work); using energy releases heat
atom
smallest part of element that has the same chemical properties (ex, properties of rock, metal, etc.); made of nucleus & electron cloud;
contains 3 subatomic particles:
protons, neutrons, electrons
nucleus
central portion of atom where protons and neutrons are found
electron cloud
region around atomic nucleus where electrons are likely to be found
proton
positively charged subatomic particle found in nucleus; (p+); change the number of protons, change the element
neutron
uncharged subatomic particle found in nucleus; (n0); change the number of neutrons, get a radioactive isotope
nucleus
atom's central region, made up of protons and neutrons
electron
negatively charged subatomic particle found in electron cloud around nucleus; (e-); change the number of electrons, get an ion
isotope
atom with extra neutron(s); are radioactive
ion
atom with positive or negative charge because it lost or gained electron(s), respectively
element
substance made of one kind of atom, all with same number of protons
molecule
2 or more atoms held together chemical bonds (ex, O2, H2, CH2O)
compound
2 or more different kinds of atoms held together with chemical bonds (ex, H2O, CH2O); all compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds
organic molecule
molecule containg carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO); usually comes from living creatures
inorganic molecule
any molecule NOT containg all 3 atoms, CHO;
carbohydrate
"sugars"; used for energy; eg, glucose, polysaccharides
glucose
simple sugar body uses for energy
lipid
fats or oils; used for cell membranes and energy storage
triglyceride
storage form of fat
phospholipid
makes up cell membranes
cholesterol
stiffening fat; mostly found in more "complicated" animals (eg, much more in pork than in fish)
steroid
fatty hormone (signal in blood)
protein
long chain of amino acids; most abundant organic molecule; performs most all functions within cells and body
amino acid
one of 20 chemicals used to make proteins
enzyme
specialized proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions by lowering activation energy; "proteins with a job"
activation energy
amount of energy needed to start a reaction
nucleic acid
information-storing molecules found in cell nucleus
DNA
double-stranded string of nucleic acids; stores all information encoding for all cell proteins; "cell cookbook"
chromosome
coiled coil of DNA; humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (1 set from each parent)
gene
short stretch of DNA encoding for a single protein; a single "recipe" for a protein
RNA
single-stranded string of nucleic acid, copied form DNA
messenger RNA
RNA copy of a gene; used as a template to create a protein; aka mRNA
transfer RNA
RNA used to carry amino acids to the mRNA to help form a protein; aka tRNA
ribosomal RNA
RNA machinery that makes proteins from mRNA and amino acids carried by tRNA; aka rRNA
electrolyte
inorganic molecule that ionizes (or dissociates) in water, and then conducts an electrical charge; all salts are electrolytes
ATP
main energy source cells use for energy (work); aka adenosine triphosphate
water compartment
body fluids divided into 2 main compartments: intracellular and extracellular fluid
intracellular fluid
fluid inside cells; aka ICF
extracellular fluid
fluid outside cells; mostly in interstitial fluid, blood plasma, or lymph; aka ECF
interstitial fluid
fluid found between cells; aka extracellular fluid
cellular respiration
process that harvests energy by breaking down glucose (and other food molecules) in the presence of oxygen;
"burning glucose with O2 to make ATP"
normal blood pH
7.4 (7.35-7.45)
alkalotic blood
>7.45; blood is too basic; aka alkalosis
acidotic blood
<7.35; blood is too acidic; aka acidosis
3 chemical bonds
covalent,
ionic,
hydrogen
covalent bond
chemical bond in which 2 or more atoms share electrons
ionic bond
chemical bond in which an atom "steals" 1 or more electron(s) from another atom, thus giving them each an electrical charge; oppisitely charged atoms are electrically attracted, forming the ionic bond
hydrogen bond
weakest chemical bond from alignment of positively-charged sides of a polar molecule (eg, water) with the negatively-charged side of another polar molecule
important ions
Na+, K+, Cl-
Ca++, Fe++,
HCO3- (bicarbonate)
HPO4- - (biphosphate has 2 extra electrons)
SO4- - (sulfate)
metabolism
all chemical reactions in the body;
includes anabolism & catabolism
decomposition
breaks molecule into smaller pieces;
aka catabolism; AB → A + B
releases energy
synthesis
assembles smaller pieces into larger ones;
aka anabolism; A + B → AB
requires energy to perform reaction
exchange
shuffles pieces between molecules;
involves both decomposition and synthesis;
AB + CD → ...→ AC + BD
reversible reaction
reaction that occurs simultaneously in both directions
AB ↔ A + B
equilibrium
(chem.) when both reactions in a reversible reaction occur at the same rate
organic compound
compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO); MUST contain all 3;
usually found in living things
inorganic compound
any compound that does not contain CHO-all 3
nutrient
essential elements and molecules from diet; require both organic and inorganic
metabolite
molecule built up or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body; may be inorganic
pH
correlated to concentration of H+ in a solution;
OH- = hydroxide ions, base, alkaline;
acid-base scale
acid
solution with elevated hydrogen ions (aka H+ or "protons");
pH 0<7
sometimes called "H+ donor"
base
solution with low hydrogen ions, but higher hydroxide ions (aka OH-);
pH 7<14
aka alkaline
solution that absorbs H+;
neutral pH
a balance of H+ & OH- (hydrogen & hydroxide in balance);
pure H20 {H+ + OH- → H20}
buffer
ion that resists changes in pH;
usually weak acids/salts
salt
ionic compound not containing H+ or OH-;
salts are electrolytes and dissociate in water
cephalic
head
cranial
skull
facial
face
orbital
eye
otic
ear
nasal
nose
buccal
cheek
oral
mouth
mental
chin
cranial
skull
occipital
back of head
cervical
neck
thoracic
chest
pectoral
chest
sternal
breast bone
abdominal
abdomen
ventral
belly
umbilical
navel
coxal
hip
pelvic
pelvis
pubic
genital area
dorsal
back
scapular
shoulder blade region
vertebral
spine
lumbar
lower back or loin region
appendicular
extremities or limbs
acromial
highest point of the shoulder
axillary
armpit
brachial
arm
cubital
elbow
antecubital
front of the elbow
olecranal
back of the elbow
antebrachial
forearm
carpal
wrist
manual
hand
palmar
palm of the hand
digital
digits (fingers or toes)
inguinal
groin where the thigh attaches to the pelvis
gluteal
buttocks
femoral
thigh
patellar
front of the knee
popliteal
back of the knee
crural
front of the leg
sural
back of the leg
fibular
lateral side of the leg
tarsal
ankle
pedal
foot
calcaneal
heel
plantar
sole of the foot
pollex
thumb
hallux
big toe
5 properties of life
responsiveness
growth
movement
metabolism
reproduction
anatomy
describes structures of body;
composition (what they're made of), location, associated structures
gross anatomy
examines large structures;
aka macroscopic anatomy
surface anatomy
exterior anatomical features
regional anatomy
study of body areas
systemic anatomy
study of organs working together
microscopic anatomy
study of cells and molecules
cytology
study of cells and their structures
histology
study of tissues and their structures
physiology
study of function
levels of organization
chemical → ceullular → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
11 organ systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, pulmonary (respiratory), digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
cell
basic unit of life
tissue
group of similar cells performing a similar function
organ
groups of different tissues working together to perform a specific function
organ system
groups of organs working together to perform a specific function
integumentary system
Skin, hair, and nails; covers and protects the body and maintains body temperature
skeletal system
provide protection and support;
bones & cartilage
muscular system
moves and heats body;
muscles & tendons
nervous system
provides speedy communcation signaling within body, sensation (sensory info.), interpretation (consciousness), memory, and movement commands;
brain & spinal cord comprise the Central Nervous System (CNS);
nerves and receptors comprise the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
endocrine system
secretes hormones that help control body activities such as growth and reproduction
hormones
long-lasting and widespreading chemical signals in blood;
eg, thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands
lymphatic system
defends the body from pathogens;
eg thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
pathogen
disease-causing agent (eg, cancer cell, bacteria, virus, fungus, insects, venom)
respiratory system
gas exchange and air movement;
eg, lungs, bronchi, trachea
digestive system
ingests (take in), digests (break down), absorbs (nutrients through cells into blood), excretes waste out of body;
eg, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas
urinary system
filters blood and excretes wastes in urine;
eg, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
reproductive system
produces offspring and sex hormones & sexual characteristics;
eg, ovaries, uterus, vagina, testes, prostate gland
homeostasis
maintenance of equilibrium within a normal range;
"same state";
usually through a negative-feedback mechanism
negative-feedback mechanism
process by which an effector negates/counteracts a stimulus;
returns body to "normal range" (eg body temp);
includes receptor, control center, and effector
receptor
neural detector for a given stimulus (eg, light, pressure, damage)
control center
neuron(s) that process signal and sends instructions to effector;
found in brain or spinal cord
effector
tissue that causes an effect
(eg, muscle that contracts to remove hand from stove
positive-feedback mechanism
response of effector increases change of the stimulus—speeds up processes;
no "normal range" of stimulus;
eg, labor contractions and blood clotting
abdominopelvic quadrants
RUQ - contains the liver and gall bladder;
RLQ - contains the appendix;
LUQ - contains the stomach, spleen;
LLQ - contains the descending colon, rectum
9 abdominopelvic regions
R. hypochondriac — Epigastric — L. hypochondriac;
R. lumbar — Umbilical — L. lumbar;
R. inguinal — Hypogastric — L. inguinal
anatomical position
body standing erect, facing forward, with upper limbs at sides and palms forward; always imagine patient in this position for correct directional term use
superior
above
inferior
below
anterior
towards the front; aka ventral
ventral
towards the front; aka anterior
posterior
towards the back; aka dorsal
dorsal
towards the back; aka posterior
proximal
closer to attachment point on the trunk of body
distal
further from attachment point on the trunk of body
lateral
away from midline
medial
toward midline
peripheral
away from center
plane
imaginary cut that divides the body through the center
section
any slice parallel to a plane
transverse plane
plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka horizontal plane
horizontal plane
plane through body at the navel; cuts the body into upper and lower parts; aka transverse plane
frontal plane
vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka coronal plane
coronal plane
vertical plane through body longitudinally from head to toe; cuts body into front and back parts; aka frontal plane
midsagittal plane
vertical plane through midline of body from head to pelvic floor; cuts body into equal left and right parts
cavity
space within body containing internal organs
dorsal cavity
1 of 2 major body cavities; contains cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)
ventral cavity
1 of 2 major body cavities; contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
thoracic cavity
superior portion of ventral cavity superior to diaphragm; contains pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum
pleural cavities
cavities within thoracic cavity containing lungs
pericardial cavity
cavity within thoracic cavity contains heart
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior portion cavity below diaphragm; contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic
mammary
breast