L-PV and Thoracic Surgery CST practice
The most common method of surgically removing thrombi is with an:
Atherosclerosis destroys the tunica ____ by penetrating it with lipids.
Vascular clamps are specifically designed to be easily applied and removed.
A metal, umbrella shaped filter is inserted into the ______ to prevent emboli from entering the pulmonary system.
Inferior vena cava
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called diastole.
The arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
______ is the removal of a fatty fibrotic plaque that develops in the intima layer of the arteries.
_______ us the insertion of an arterial catheter or stent into an artery to establish patency and normal blood flow.,
Obstruction or stenosis of an artery commonly forms at the ______.
The injection of contrast media into a selected artery and its branches to determine the exact location of strictures, occlusion, or malformation is called ______.
What anatomical structures make up the peripheral vascular system?
Arteries, veins, and capillary networks
A/An ______ is any organic or inorganic material that blocks an artery.
The _____ syringe would be appropriate for testing a Fogarty-type embolectomy catheter with a balloon volume of 1 mL or less.
The medical term that means "in its normal position" is _____.
A bifurcated graft is ________.
In situ saphenous vein bypass is a surgical alternative to using a ______ to bypass a diseased femoral artery.
Intravenous administration of thrombin can cause a/an _____.
All blood vessels have three layers: the tunica ______, or outside layer; the middle, or tunica media; and the inner, or tunica intima.
The elastic nature of the arteries allows them to ___ during systole and ____ during diastole to maintain vascular pressure.
Femorofemoral bypass is performed to bypass unilateral atherosclerotic disease in the _____ artery.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a condition in which a section of the abdominal aorta becomes ______.
thin and bulges
The greater saphenous vein is surgically removed to provide an autograft for ______.
Peripheral or coronary artery bypass
The largest vein of the body is the _____.
Following a carotid endarterectomy, once the arteriotomy is closed, the clamps are taken off the internal, external, and _____ carotid arteries, in that order.
Outside of the body means ______.
A direct anastomosis between an artery and a vein is called a/an _____.
A reduction in the patients total blood volume is called.
A blood clot, air, or organic material that is free flowing in the vascular system is known as ________.
________ is administered to reverse the effects of systemic heparin.
Ischemia of tissue may be caused by _______.
Loss of blood to the tissue
An incision made in the artery is called an _______.
Pulse volume recording (arterial plethysmography) requires ______ blood pressure cuffs readings.
An intraoperative vasospasm can be controlled by injections of ______.
The surgical position of choice for a single lung transplant is:
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition in which the subclavian vessels and the brachial plexus are compressed at the ______.
Apex of the thorax
A thymectomy is commonly performed for malignant tumors and occasionally ________.
The reason an inhaled foreign material is more likely to enter the right lung is because the right bronchus is _____ than the left.
_______ is the loss of elasticity and distension of the alveoli
An arterial blood gasses test assesses the arterial blood for ____.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels as well as pH
Decortication of the lung is the surgical removal of a portion of the _____.
______ is generally used only for the removal of large tissue or a foreign body.
The surgical removal of a portion of the parietal pleura is called _____.
Decortication of the lung
Diffusion is the transfer of oxygen from the ______.
Alveoli in the lungs to the blood stream
When performing a thoracotomy, the edges of the wound are covered with laparotomy sponges to protect the wound edges from ______.
_______ is the increased rate of respiration that prevents elimination of carbon dioxide.
_______ requires 10-mm lenses in sizes 0 and 30 degrees.
_______ is the movement and absorption of oxygen molecules into body tissue.
The procedure that removes an entire lung to debulk (reduce the size of) a malignant tumor is called a ______.
A wedge resection of the lung is the removal of at least one lobe.
An obstruction in the pulmonary vascular system that may result in ischemia to that portion of the lung is called _______.
Flexible bronchoscopy is performed to examine the lower respiratory tract and to obtain biopsy specimens.
The arterial blood gasses (ABG's) test assesses arterial blood for oxygen and carbon dioxide levels as well as pH (acid based balance).
The lung is divided into anatomical regions. The right lung has ____ lobes and the left lung has ____ lobes.
_____ is defined as difficulty in breathing.
With a thoracotomy, the shoulder muscles are retracted using a _____.
A pneumothorax is air in the chest cavity that prevents the lungs from expanding and may _______.
displace the mediastinal structures
Diffusion is the molecular passage of oxygen across the alveoli and into the blood stream.
During a double lung transplant, the surgeon may use a bilateral, sequential technique. This technique will ______.
Avoid the need for cardiopulmonary bypass
When the diaphragm ______, the potential space between the two peural membranes is decreased and air is pulled into airways and lungs.
Mediastinoscopy is endoscopic examination of the thoracic cavity.
Single lung transplantation is increasingly used as a way to _____.
maximize the allocation of donor lung organs
during a pulmonary function test, the total volume of air is exhaled after maximum inspiration. This is called ______
The ______ begins at the larynx and branches into two main airways.
The diaphragm is a sealed barrier between the ______ cavities.
Thoracic and abdominal
The patient is placed in a semi-fowler's position to perform a _____ bronchoscopy.
Bronchoscopy is the insertion of a flexible fiberoptic or rigid telescope into the _____.
______ is bloody sputum or bleeding arising from the respiratory tract.
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition in which the subclavian vessels and the brachial plexus are compressed at the apex of the thorax.
The pleural space normally maintains a positive pressure in relation to atmospheric air and the alveoli.
The ______, nerves are carefully preserved during a pneumonectomy.
Vagus, left recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic
Hemothorax is the presence of air in the thoracic cavity or between the pleural sac and lungs.
The self-retaining retractor used during a femoral-popliteal bypass is:
What synthetic material used for grafts requires preclotting?
Dacron knit polyester
A diagnostic test that examines blood flow and metabolic function of the heart and brain is:
Positron emission tomography
The majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms begin where?
Below the renal arteries
A vascular clamp used for occluding peripheral vessels is the:
What procedure is performed for chronic cerebral ischemia?
The instrument commonly used to clamp the aorta during an abdominal aneurysmectomy is a:
The instrument commonly used to remove plaque form the carotid during an endarterectomy is a:
The commonly used size of suture for peripheral vascular anastomosis of the popliteal artery is:
The rupturing of erythrocytes is called:
Ateriovenous (AV) fistula is preferred over an external shunt for long-term dialysis because of a decreased chance of:
The movement of blood through a vessel can be assessed by a:
The agent used to flush an artery to prevent clotting is:
Fatty deposits on the walls of arteries are called:
The scissors commonly used to extend the arteriotomy during an endarterectomy is a:
The procedure most commonly performed for the excision of small, peripherally located lesions of the lung is called a:
During a bronchoscopy, which solution is preferred for bronchial washing specimens?
The pathology in which the subclavian artery is compressed resulting in severe ischemia of the arm is a type of:
Thoracic outlet syndrome
What instrument is a rib contractor?
Removal of air and/or blood from the pleural cavity by means of an aspiration needle is called:
A bronchoscopy procedure allows visualization of the:
What size of trocar is commonly used during a thoracoscopy?
What procedure is the removal of an entire lung?
Which node is an important site for metastasis from the lungs and is a frequent site for biopsy?
A procedure performed in patients with empyema is called: